LEST WE FORGET

RAF and Commonwealth Air Forces Servicemen

Lost in the Defence of Malta

 

John A Agius MBE

Frederick R Galea

with Kevin Mifsud

 

 

lest we forget

 

SIEGE OF MALTA  June 1940 - October 1942

The history of the Island of Malta is ancient and remarkable and when the valour and endurance of its population in the years 1940-1942 were honoured with the unique award of the George Cross many admirers reflected on the sieges which it had already undergone. In comparatively modern times Malta has changed hands more than once. In the 16th century it was a stronghold of Christianity under the rule of the Knights of St John, under the inspired leadership of Grand Master La Valette, Malta withstood the siege laid by the Turks in 1565. Again at the end of the 18th century the island was blockaded, this time by the British with the aid of the Maltese themselves, who had rebelled against the Napoleonic occupation of their island. By the Treaty of Paris in 1814, Malta was admitted to the British Empire, by the free will of the Maltese people and in its function as a link in the Mediterranean route towards the east, it was strategically one of the most important of British territories. Its value from this point of view was never more significant than in the critical years of the last war, when the battles in the Mediterranean hinged upon supplies. In standing up to ferocious air bombardment Malta became a symbol of high-spirited endurance and finally had the distinction of serving as headquarters for the launching of the first attack upon the home territory of one of the Axis powers - the invasion of Sicily.

The Island’s resistance was the result of combined operations in which the Navy, the Army, the Air Force and the Merchant Navy were all indispensable and inseparable. The story of the air battle for Malta, which follows this account, is largely the story of the Army, the Navy and the Merchant Navy, as well. The greater part of the ground forces was devoted in one way or another to maintaining the Air Force. The Navy and the Mercantile Marine with difficulty maintained the other two services as well as the civil population and between them kept Malta open as an air and naval base. Had Malta surrendered, the removal of this base from the map of the Mediterranean might have spelt the death knell of the Eighth Army then engaged in its desperate struggle with Rommel in North Africa. The defeat of the Eighth Army would have meant also the end of Malta.

The Land Forces

In the breathing space between Munich and Italy’s declaration of war on 10th June 1940, everything possible was done, with the scanty resources available, to strengthen the Island’s defences. It was envisaged that in the event of war Italy would come in on the side of Germany and would attempt a sea-borne invasion of Malta. Cliffs along the south-western side of the Island rendered that area secure from large-scale landings. In the north, about eight kilometres inland, there stands a natural escarpment - stretches right across the Island - which late last century had been fortified and named the Victoria Lines. The defence scheme was therefore based on the coast. However, the anticipated attacks by sea did not, in fact, develop; the first and last attempt upon Malta by sea was a raid by Italian E-boats and one-man barchini on Grand Harbour, on 26th July 1941, just after the arrival of a large convoy. The Malta coastal gunners wiped out the entire fleet and not one of the supply ships lying in the harbour was lost. Nor was airborne invasion attempted, but the enemy tried to subjugate Malta by air bombardment.

Normally the Island was but lightly garrisoned. There were a number of defence posts on the northern beaches and there were the immensely strong fortifications of Valletta Harbour. When war broke out on 3rd September 1939, the garrison consisted of: the 2nd Bn The Devonshire Regiment, the 2nd Bn The Queen’s Own Royal West Kent Regiment, the 1st Bn The Dorsetshire Regiment, the 2nd Bn The Royal Irish Fusiliers, the 7th AA Regiment RA (renamed, in 1940, 7th HAA Regt.) and one battalion of the local territorials, the 1st Bn The King’s Own Malta Regiment.

There were three airfields: Luqa, the largest but not quite ready for use and situated about two kilometres from the base of Grand Harbour, Hal Far, which was the Fleet Air Arm aerodrome in the south of the Island with its anchorage at Kalafrana in Marsaxlokk Bay, small but in running order and Ta’ Qali, near the centre of the island, equipped with a reception building and used by small passenger aircraft.

By the end of September 1939 voluntary recruiting had produced enough men to form two more battalions of the King’s Own Malta Regiment. The Maltese Auxiliary Corps had been formed and its personnel had joined various regular units. In November 1939 the status of the army in Malta was raised to that of a Division and a draft of officers and other ranks from the reserve arrived from England. In May 1940, the 8th Bn The Manchester Regiment arrived. Steps were taken during the first nine months of the war to provision the island but only regular convoys could sustain her and it was planned to bring these from Egypt in the east and from Britain in the west. Not all ships sailed in convoy, however. In 1941 a number sailed alone, adopting what means they could devise to hoodwink the enemy. Losses were heavy but the vessels which reached Malta were vital in keeping the fortress in being.

Up to the end of 1941 most convoys struggled through bringing food, ammunition, guns, lorries, cement for gun emplacements and many other necessities for total war, including reinforcements too. In September 1940 the 27th HA Battery arrived to strengthen the 7th HAA Regiment. At the same time came eight 3.7-inch mobile guns and 12 Bofors light anti-aircraft guns which almost doubled the Island’s gun capacity. In November the 59th LAA Battery reached Malta and was incorporated in the regiment. In the beginning, until more aircraft were available, defence against air attack rested largely upon the RA, as it did again in early 1942 when, after day and night bombing by the 2nd German Air Fleet, only a few aircraft were left to oppose the enemy.

In February 1941 the 1st Bn The Hampshire Regiment and the 2nd Bn The Cheshire Regiment arrived from Alexandria and later two substantial drafts brought the strength of the Buffs up to nearly 1,000. Moreover, in February 1941 also, the Malta Council of Government introduced conscription which made all males between 16 and 65 liable for national service and men between 18 and 41 also for service with the armed forces. These Maltese recruits were trained by the regular United Kingdom battalions and each formation was enrolled as a unit of the British regular army.

The multifarious duties of the army included regular patrols along 145 kilometres of intricate coastline, manning defence posts, providing the boarding party which accompanied every naval vessel engaged upon contraband patrol, unloading and transporting to safety the cargoes brought in by the convoys, the enlargement of the airfields and the servicing of aircraft. The soldiers created 43 kilometres of dispersal area between the Luqa and Hal Far airfields which linked the two and was known as the Safi Strip. Save for some labour provided in the early stages by the Malta Police, the Hampshire Regiment made this strip without assistance. The Hampshires were also entrusted with the disposal of delayed action bombs and rescue and clearance work after air raids.

There was not enough RAF ground staff in Malta and men of the infantry and field artillery came to the rescue. Luqa aerodrome, which became the bomber base, was maintained by the Royal West Kents and the Buffs, Ta’ Qali, the fighter aerodrome, by the Manchesters and Hal Far by the Devons. They kept the runways in repair, filled up bomb craters, bombed up bombers, refuelled the aircraft and became expert belt fillers and armourers - all under ceaseless day and night attack. Some days there were as many as 3,000 infantry and RA troops at work. Air Vice-Marshal Lloyd said afterwards, “I’d have been out of business but for the soldiers”.

The gradual accretion of land strength laid the foundations of the Island’s resistance against the second and third appearance of the Luftwaffe upon the scene. The air defences had been reinforced and at the end of 1942, following the air battles, Malta emerged triumphant from her ordeal.

The Navy

In the early months of the war Malta, inadequately defended against air attack, could not be used as a naval base except for submarines, of which at that time there were only six. Offensive operations in the Mediterranean and the convoy of supply ships were conducted from Alexandria and Gibraltar. In April 1941, however, a surface force of four destroyers was sent to work from Malta against the enemy’s convoy for Italy and on the night of 15th/16th April they annihilated an outward bound convoy off Sfax, sinking five merchantmen and three destroyers for the loss of the destroyer Mohawk.

From June 1941 to the end of the year there were on average only ten or twelve submarines working from Malta but they reaped a rich harvest in transport, tankers and other supply ships sunk or damaged. Casualties were inevitable and eight submarines were lost.

At the beginning of November 1941 another surface force comprising two cruisers and two destroyers was sent to Malta to harass still further the cross-Mediterranean shipping and on 8th November scored a resounding initial success by destroying all ten ships of the Brindisi-Benghazi convoy and sinking two of the four escorting destroyers. A third destroyer was sunk the next morning by the submarine Upholder which had arrived on the scene during the night.

In the early part of 1942 when the air onslaught on Malta was at its height and convoys could not get through, the position for surface forces was too hazardous and adequate maintenance was no longer possible. They were therefore withdrawn to Alexandria or Gibraltar. Only the submarines remained, and with the constant need for them to submerge during the day it was increasingly difficult to keep them efficient. At the end of April they too had to withdraw to Alexandria. Three had been sunk during air raids and another, the last to leave, was sunk by a mine off the harbour mouth. In the lull following Rommel’s success in North Africa, which gained him Tobruk and made Malta less of a menace to his communications, the submarines returned and once more patrolled the Mediterranean. From that time onwards, despite another heavy air bombardment in October 1942, Malta was successfully re-provisioned and surface forces could once more be based there. By the end of November the 15th Cruiser Squadron and two destroyer flotillas had been transferred from Egyptian waters and proceeded to thwart the enemy’s efforts to reinforce and supply his hard-pressed army in North Africa.

The War in the Air 

The ordeal of Malta began as soon as Italy entered the war on 10th June 1940. Previously, the Island had fulfilled its normal function as a link in the Mediterranean route towards the East, albeit subjected to increasing stress as the war developed. On 11th June, Malta suffered its first air raid. Its airborne defence at that time consisted of four obsolescent Sea-Gladiator biplanes which had reached the Island only a short while earlier and were borrowed from the Navy by Air Commodore Maynard, the AOC Malta. These few fighter aircraft held their own against superior numbers and forced the Italians to send fighter escorts with their bombers.

Before the end of June reinforcements arrived in the shape of four Hurricanes which had been intended for the Middle East but which Malta was permitted to retain. At the end of June, too, Swordfish aircraft of the Fleet Air Arm, originally based at Hyeres in Southern France, reached Malta by way of Algeria and Tunisia; they began anti-submarine patrols by the beginning of July. In spite of the pressing need for fighter aircraft in Britain, more Hurricanes were sent to Malta at the beginning of August; these were flown in from the aircraft-carrier Argus. Malta’s powers of retaliation and offensive action were increasing. Aircraft from Malta reconnoitred Taranto Harbour as a preliminary to the successful attack on that Italian naval base by the Fleet Air Arm in November 1940. Indeed, photographic reconnaissance of the Central Mediterranean was the responsibility of Malta-based aircraft from 1940 till the end of 1942. By this means a constant watch was kept on Axis shipping at sea and in the ports of Italy, Sicily and North Africa.

The tactical reconnaissance preparatory to the Allied landings in North-West Africa was all carried out by aircraft from Malta. Enemy airfields as well as shipping were closely watched. In January 1941, German Air Force units were transferred to Sicily and air attacks on Malta increased both in scale and intensity. When on 11th January, HMS Illustrious, severely damaged, put in to Grand Harbour for repairs, heavy raids followed. These did not succeed in their object of destroying or incapacitating Illustrious (which sailed for Alexandria under her own power on the 23rd) but caused heavy casualties as well as severe damage to the homes and defences of the Island.

In February and March there were again large-scale raids, following an increase in German air strength in Sicily; numbers of British aircraft were destroyed or damaged on the ground and the airfields of Luqa, Hal Far and Ta’ Qali were rendered temporarily unserviceable. At the beginning of April a dozen Hurricanes were flown in off the aircraft-carrier Ark Royal and twenty-three more arrived towards the end of the month. By the end of June, 75 more carrier-borne Hurricanes had reached Malta. In May, the Luftwaffe 10th Fliegerkorps, which had been in Sicily, left for the Balkans, for the Battle of Crete. The Germans, whilst enjoying superiority in the air, had not succeeded in destroying the naval base or the airfields, nor in entirely cutting off supplies even though they had limited both air and naval operations from Malta. Now the task of subduing Malta was left to the Regia Aeronautica, the Italian Air Force, which had already proved inadequate to cope with the task.

In the summer of 1941, Malta was (to say the least) under-equipped and understaffed, yet overcrowded. Even essential supplies could be brought in only with difficulty. With the departure of the Luftwaffe units from Sicily a quieter period in the Axis air war against Malta followed. The Malta-based reconnaissance and striking forces had a better opportunity to play their part in the battle of supplies, on which victory in Africa so largely depended. German and Italian supply ships on their way to Africa, were within range of aircraft from Malta which, along with the Royal Navy, seized their opportunities to such good effect that by October little more than one-third of the gross tonnage of German and Italian supplies which left Europe arrived safely in Africa. The losses were so serious that for a time all Axis convoys to Africa were discontinued.

Wellington bombers which, for a time had been unable to operate from Malta now again made raids on Tripoli nightly for several weeks and also raided Italian bases in Sardinia and Sicily. The work done from Malta during the summer of 1941 is summed up in a message sent to the Island, in October, by the Secretary of State for Air; it reads: “The brilliant defence of the Island by the Hurricanes, the audacious attacks of the Beaufighters on enemy air bases, the steady and deadly slogging of the Wellingtons at the enemy’s ports, the daring and dextrous reconnaissance of the Marylands, culminating with the tremendous onslaughts of the Blenheims and Fleet Air Arm Swordfish on Axis shipping in the Mediterranean are watched with immense admiration by your comrades in the Royal Air Force and by your fellow countrymen at home. You are draining the enemy’s strength in the Mediterranean”.

By the late autumn of 1941 the enemy supply situation in the Mediterranean had become so serious that the Axis leaders decided that Malta as a base for offensive air and naval operations must be destroyed. Accordingly, towards the end of the year large German air reinforcements were transferred to the Mediterranean from the Russian front. From the beginning of January until the end of April 1942, the 2nd Fliegerkorps under Field-Marshal Kesselring subjected Malta to constant day-and-night attacks. On days of major operations, more than 500 enemy aircraft were in action against the Island’s defences, this period later being referred to as the Spring Blitz.

The RAF losses were extremely heavy and in spite of reinforcements, the point was reached when only a handful of serviceable fighters was left to resist the enemy and the main task of defending Malta fell to the anti-aircraft gunners. The attacks were aimed first of all at the airfields and fighter strength, then at dockyards and harbours and then at stores, barracks and communications. The civilians suffered severely. Only with the help of the Army was it possible to keep the airfields serviceable. In the single month of April 1942, the airfields alone received twenty-seven times the tonnage of bombs dropped on the city of Coventry in its great raid the previous November.

It was at this anxious time, on 15th April 1942, that Governor, General Sir William Dobbie, received a message from His Majesty King George VI; it reads: “To honour her brave people I award the George Cross to the Island fortress of Malta to bear witness to a heroism and devotion that will long be famous in history”.

By April 1942 Kesselring considered that Malta had been effectively neutralised as a sea and air base. Adequate reserves had been accumulated in Africa to enable Rommel to launch his advance towards Egypt on 26th May. The plan envisaged the capture of Tobruk and an advance to the Egyptian frontier, when these operations would be halted to allow the invasion of Malta to take place. Such, however, was the success of Rommel’s drive that Hitler announced that “the historic moment has come to conquer Egypt” and the plan for the invasion of Malta, which was to have taken place on 10th July, was postponed. By the end of June the Axis army was far into Egypt, within sixty miles of Alexandria.

In the meantime active steps had been taken for the reinforcement of Malta. At the beginning of March, fifteen Spitfires had been flown to Malta off the aircraft-carrier Eagle. On 1st April, Prime Minister Churchill asked President Roosevelt for the use of the American carrier USS Wasp to deliver to Malta a reinforcement of Spitfires. A positive reply was received and on 9th April, 47 Spitfires took-off for Malta from Wasp. A further sixty-four Spitfires were flown off the aircraft-carriers Eagle and Wasp to the Island on 9th May. This prompted Churchill to send the now-famous signal to the American carrier: “Who said a wasp cannot sting twice?”. Their arrival marked the turning-point of the struggle for local air superiority as from the following day. About this time the Luftwaffe was diverted to the support of Rommel’s offensive in Africa, leaving Malta once again to the Italians.

By June 1942 Malta had resumed the offensive against the Axis convoys bound for Africa so effectively that Rommel’s army was involved in another of its recurrent supply crises. Powerful Luftwaffe units were again transferred from Africa to Sicily and in July another effort was made to subdue the Island by air attack. By this time, however, the Island’s defences were sufficiently strong to beat the attempt and the enemy sustained crippling losses in both aircraft and men. Between 1st June 1941 and 13th July 1942, it is estimated that the RAF and the AA defences between them accounted for 693 Axis aircraft shot down over and around Malta. The battle for Malta had, in fact, occupied hundreds of Axis aircraft whose use to Rommel in Cyrenaica (now Libya) might have made success in Egypt possible, leading to Axis hegemony over the Middle East and control of the immensely important oil supplies.

Then followed the battle for the stabilisation of the Eighth Army at El Alamein in July. The German and Italian parachute troops already assembled for the invasion of Malta had to be rushed by air to Africa to strengthen Rommel’s forces which, lacking adequate supplies, were being gravely endangered by the Eighth Army’s attacks, under the leadership of General Auchinleck. The loss of these trained troops, the renewed strength of Malta and Hitler’s lack of faith in the ability of the Italians, finally forced the enemy to abandon the plan for the invasion of the Island.

Meanwhile the Air Force had to play its part in protecting convoys coming to the relief of the Island, both by providing fighter escorts and by strategic bombing of enemy ports. In June, two convoys had attempted the perilous passage, one from Gibraltar and one from Alexandria. The latter, having been under constant air attack, was forced by a shortage of ammunition and a threat from the Italian fleet to turn back. The convoy from Gibraltar suffered such severe attacks that only two out of six merchant ships reached Grand Harbour, the other four having been destroyed by air attack.

By August, the Island’s food and fuel reserves were almost exhausted and this would have compelled the authorities to capitulate shortly afterwards through starvation! Another convoy, code-named Pedestal, ran the gauntlet from Gibraltar. Losses again were very heavy and only five merchant ships, including the American-built Texaco tanker Ohio, out of fourteen arrived. The Navy lost an aircraft-carrier, a cruiser, an anti-aircraft ship and a destroyer. Only at the price of such sacrifices by the Royal Navy and the Merchant Navy was relief brought to Malta.

In October 1942, the third and final attempt to subdue Malta from the air was undertaken by the Luftwaffe. British fighter opposition was so intense that by 15th October an attacking force of 14 bombers was being escorted by 98 fighters; this became known as the October Blitz. After about eight days the attacks were called off, as they were proving too costly. The Western Desert Air Force had also begun their air offensive preparatory to the Battle of El Alamein and the Luftwaffe units were sent back to Africa.

During the air offensive against Malta, the RAF still managed to carry out attacks by night against Axis shipping. The war against the Axis supply lines across the Mediterranean by aircraft based on Malta and Egypt and submarines of the Royal Navy reached a new pitch of intensity, reducing to a mere trickle the flow of supplies intended for the German and Italian armies in Africa. The tide turned with the Axis defeat at El Alamein. Throughout November 1942 Malta-based bombers attacked airfields and harbours in Tunisia, Sicily and Sardinia in aid of the Allied forces in North-West Africa and continued their relentless war against the enemy’s supply lines. On 20th November a convoy from Egypt finally raised the siege of the Island, reaching Grand Harbour intact.

Thereafter, Malta achieved its importance as a base for offensive action. The number of aircraft operating from its airfields could be steadily increased and they were used to assist each fresh step towards victory in the Mediterranean. When the Island served as headquarters for the invasion of Sicily, more than thirty squadrons assembled there - it was the most important air base in the Mediterranean, by virtue of its central geographical position.

ROLLS OF HONOUR

ROYAL AIR FORCE

HEADQUARTERS, RAF MEDITERRANEAN

(later known as AIR HEADQUARTERS, MALTA)

Azzopardi, J

AC2

11.03.41

Boornan, G E

LAC

02.03.42

Brunton, F A

LAC

02.01.43

Cliff, J W

Cpl

15.06.44

Hermon, H C

LAC

29.04.41

Jordan, R C, MiD

Grp Capt

23.06.43

Kitcher, C

AC2

12.09.43

Leavesley, S

LAC

15.03.42

McCririck, R E

Cpl

30.12.42

Newman, H G

Flt Lt

14.01.43

Scadeng, H

Plt Off

28.02.41

Styles, A H

LAC

27.03.42

Tapper, R N

Sgt

29.04.41

RAF STATION, KALAFRANA

Beer, A A J, MiD

Flt Lt

18.04.42

Blyth, A D

Cpl

30.12.41

Borg, J

AC1

11.03.41

Carswell, R

Cpl

08.09.43

Clarke, J S

AC1

09.05.42

Cook, S H

Cpl

08.05.42

Davis, J C

F/Sgt

08.05.42

Dawes, V E

LAC

23.11.40

Farrugia-Gay, J

AC2

08.05.42

Flower, W T

LAC

26.04.42

Griffith, T P L

LAC

04.02.42

Hayter, K W

Cpl

18.04.42

Kin, H

Cpl

24.03.42

King, G R

AC2

04.02.42

Lockwood, F H

Cpl

08.05.42

Long, D B

AC2

21.10.41

McCarty, J A

LAC

08.05.42

McEwen, M

LAC

26.04.42

McNicol, W J

LAC

31.12.41

Moriarty, A

AC2

23.04.42

Nicolls, V A

Flt Lt

11.02.42

Nielsen, T L

Cpl

04.02.42

Parmenter, S L

Cpl

08.05.42

Pirotta, J

AC1

30.12.41

Poole, F

LAC

16.02.42

Smith, J M

Sgt

18.04.42

Titherington, W G

AC1

24.03.42

Vella, A

AC1

23.06.42

Wills, D L

Cpl

01.04.42

Woodman, A T

Cpl

24.03.42

RAF STATION, HAL FAR

Baines, G

AC1

24.03.42

Ciarlo, J

LAC

05.07.42

Collins, W T D

LAC

18.04.42

Dewhurst, J S, MM

Sgt

21.05.42

Fisher, W

AC1

24.03.42

Gibbs, H T, MM

F/Sgt

30.04.42

Godwin, L J F

Sgt

28.02.41

Keeble, P G

Flt Lt

16.07.40

Kemp, V A

Cpl

21.07.40

King, W L

AC1

21.05.42

Leverington, G H R

LAC

24.03.42

Morris, V F

Sgt

26.01.42

Robbins, A D

AC1

09.10.42

Scicluna, E

LAC

24.03.42

Whatmore, W

AC1

24.03.42

Willans, F C

AC1

21.07.40

RAF STATION, TA’ QALI

Bond, G W 

LAC

20.03.42

Brown, M H, DFC*

Wg Cdr

12.11.41

Calton, D L 

LAC

23.02.42

Churchill, W M, DSO, DFC

Grp Capt

27.08.42

Clark, N

LAC

02.07.42

Clarke, C B

AC1

02.07.42

Cruickshank, G

Cpl

02.07.42

Downer, J

LAC

27.01.43

Hilton, J A

Plt Off

13.01.42

Holt, G W

LAC

10.08.42

Huggins, R

Plt Off

13.01.42

Johnson, J H

LAC

02.07.42

Lait, J F

Sgt

13.01.42

Magro, W

AC1

19.09.43

Nichols, B H

Cpl

02.07.42

Portelli, J

LAC

02.07.42

Preston, M L

AC1

02.09.41

Tapping, A T 

Cpl

09.02.42

Thomas, A J

Cpl

02.07.42

Turner, V

LAC

09.02.42

Waterfield, A A V

Flt Lt

21.03.42

Webling, P F

Cpl

24.01.43

RAF STATION, LUQA

Atkinson, L H

Cpl

29.07.42

Bond, J

AC1

16.09.41

Clarke, P M

Cpl

21.04.42

Clarke, T

Sgt

18.12.41

Drainer, J

LAC

13.07.42

Fullbrook, W

AC1

07.01.42

Granard, J

Cpl

03.01.42

Horn, G R

AC1

07.01.42

Jones, J

Cpl

26.06.42

Macmillan, D

LAC

04.10.41

Maltby, G E

AC2

07.01.42

Osborne, A M, GC

(see Appendix A)

LAC

01.04.42

Ryan, J A

AC1

07.01.42

Saliba, A

LAC

30.08.43

Singer, G F K

Cpl

15.02.42

Verney, E B

Cpl

03.01.42

Watson, W

AC1

07.01.42

No.242 A.M.E.S.

Macdonald, R J M

AC2

11.12.41

No.501 A.M.E.S.

Botfield, E J 

Cpl

04.04.43

David, R C

Cpl

01.04.42

Ellis, M D

Cpl

01.04.42

Hoskin, S F

LAC

01.04.42

Pitt, J

Cpl

01.04.42

Povey, F R

Flt Lt

01.04.42

No.14 Squadron (Blenheim)

As from November 1941, the squadron operated from the Western Desert, with numerous detachments in the Middle East, on bombing operations until August 1942 with Blenheims.

MacMichael, W

Sgt RAAF

20.03.42

Munyard, P

Sgt RAAF

20.03.42

No.18 Squadron (Blenheim)

On 12th October 1941, a detachment of fifteen Blenheims was sent to Malta for anti-shipping duties over the Mediterranean. The final sorties were made during January 1942 and its remaining Blenheims were withdrawn to Egypt where the detachment was disbanded on 21st March 1942. However, that same month it started to reform in England and was operative in April. The squadron returned to Malta by the end of July 1943 as part of No.326 Wing, equipped with Bostons, flying light bomber sorties during the Sicilian campaign.

Allan, W B

Sgt

08.12.41

Baker, S R

Sgt

07.01.42

Barclay, J A

Plt Off

08.12.41

Billett, J F

Sgt

26.12.41

Buck, D W

Sgt

19.11.41

Buckley, T R

Sgt

08.11.41

Clark, P H M

Plt Off

05.11.41

Cuming, W J

Sgt

08.12.41

Daniels, A F 

Sgt

05.11.41

Edmunds, E G, DFC

Flt Lt RNZAF

11.12.41

Hanson, H L

Sgt

19.11.41

Hedin, S E, DFM

Sgt

11.12.41

Hillman, R

Sgt

07.01.42

Kelly, J J

Plt Off RCAF

05.11.41

Lawson, L

Sgt

22.10.41

Lee, H B

Sgt

08.12.41

Lowe, G A

F/Sgt RCAF

05.11.41

Macaulay, H

Sgt RCAF

19.11.41

Marshall, W C

Sgt

26.12.41

Mills, D E

Sgt

08.11.41

Mills, M J, 

Sgt

11.12.41

Morris, R J

Sgt

05.11.41

Newsome, C D

F/Sgt RCAF

19.11.41

Parsons, G N

Sgt

19.11.41

Phillips, D H

Sgt

07.01.42

Pilley, J H, DFM

Sgt

08.12.41

Poulton, J S

Sgt

19.11.41

Pryor, G C

Flt Lt RCAF

08.11.41

Robinson, G

Sgt

22.10.41

Summers, O C

Sgt

26.12.41

Thompson, F

Sgt

19.11.41

Tollett, R

Sgt

08.12.41

Vickers, H

Sgt

05.11.41

Walker, R V W

Sgt

19.11.41

Whitmore, T A

Sgt

07.11.41

Woodburn, J D, DFM

Sgt RCAF

22.10.41

Woolman, J H

Sgt

19.11.41

No.21 Squadron (Blenheim)

On 27th April 1941, a detachment of six Blenheim Mk IV bombers from 2 Group, Bomber Command, arrived at Malta from the United Kingdom via Gibraltar, for day anti-shipping duties and coastal operations over the Mediterranean. The squadron flew out on 26th December, however, owing to sustained losses, their numbers were reduced to such an extent that the last sorties were made during February 1942 and on 14th March the squadron was disbanded and reformed the same day in the United Kingdom.

Ashley, F C

Plt Off

04.02.42

Cameron, G R

F/Sgt RNZAF

06.02.42

Clement, D J

Sgt

04.02.42

Coakley, K J

Plt Off RNZAF

14.01.42

Dukes-Smith, H F

Flt Lt

14.01.42

Fletcher, R D

Sgt

06.02.42

Fox, E

Flt Lt

29.01.42

Frost, L J

Sgt

04.02.42

Grabham, J S

Sgt

11.02.42

Grieve, J G C

Plt Off

06.02.42

Groves, D I

Sgt

14.01.42

Hall, R R

Sgt

06.02.42

Hancock, G

Sgt

06.02.42

Houston, M C

Sgt

04.02.42

Hulbert, G

Plt Off

04.02.42

Hussey, A

F/Sgt

14.01.42

Ibbotson, J K

F/Sgt RNZAF

04.02.42

Lewis, V T

Sgt

04.02.42

McLaren, D B

Sgt

14.01.42

Morris, D J

Plt Off

06.02.42

O’Grady, J

Plt Off

04.02.42

Pepper, A L

Sgt

29.01.42

Rowley, C J

Plt Off

06.02.42

Sangster, R

Sgt

28.12.41

Selkirk, W R, MiD

Wg Cdr

04.02.42

Smaridge, R E

Plt Off

06.02.42

Smethurst, K J E

Plt Off

04.02.42

Stewart, R R

Sqn Ldr RNZAF

06.02.42

Stubbs, J H

Sgt

11.02.42

Taylor, R E

Plt Off

29.01.42

Tyas, P

Sgt

11.02.42

Wallett, W H

Cpl

28.12.41

Workman, F J

Plt Off RAAF

06.02.42

Wratten, A J

Sgt

14.01.42

No.22 Squadron (Beaufort)

On 18th March 1942, the squadron began leaving the United Kingdom for the Far East via Gibraltar, Malta and Egypt and arrived in Ceylon on 28th April. It operated torpedo-armed Beauforts from Bu Amud, in Egypt, against enemy convoys and used Malta for refuelling purposes.

Howroyd, S E

F/Sgt

14.04.42

Lee, J

Wnt Off

14.04.42

No.23 Squadron (Mosquito)

On 27th December 1942, the first squadron of Mosquito Mk II fighters to operate outside the United Kingdom arrived at Luqa. The unit flew night intruder missions starting on the night of 29th/30th December over Sicily, Italy and Tunisia. During the Sicilian campaign it formed part of No.244 Wing.

Ashley, J D

Sgt

02.08.43

Bishop, J D

Flg Off

13.04.43

Cartwright, R V

Flg Off

13.04.43

Cave-Browne, E H

Flg Off

16.02.43

Clark, C E 

Sgt

21.07.43

Clunes, D I

F/Sgt

12.02.43

Cornes, S J

Flg Off

21.02.43

Cornforth, S

Flg Off

01.04.43

Crapper, V B

Sgt

10.07.43

Davies, M

Flg Off

01.04.43

Day, B J

F/Sgt

08.07.43

Farrelly, J T

Sgt

17.08.43

Gladman, P J

Flg Off

25.06.43

Haley, G

F/Sgt

05.06.43

Heslop, R

Sgt

03.04.43

Hodgkinson, A J, DSO, DFC *

Flt Lt

10.07.43

Hopkins, W H

Flg Off RNZAF

28.04.43

Innes, A C S

Flt Lt

22.07.43

Lord, J M

Flg Off

22.07.43

Marston, R C

Sgt

12.02.43

Maurice, C

Sgt

26.04.43

McCoy, L A

Plt Off

11.04.43

Menkes, E G L

Flt Lt

02.08.43

Moody, G C R

Flt Lt

25.06.43

Moss, E S

Sgt

09.01.43

Neyder, M

Flt Lt

21.02.43

Olley, P D

Sgt

09.01.43

Penfold, G A 

LAC

09.02.43

Phillips, M H A

Flt Lt

11.04.43

Sabine, L

Sgt

17.08.43

Salkeld, S W

Sgt

08.07.43

Salusbury-Hughes, K H, DFC

Sqn Ldr

21.07.43

Sherrington, R C, DFM

Wnt Off

28.04.43

Thomson, J A G

Flg Off

03.04.43

Tym, W E 

Flt Lt

05.06.43

Westcott, F

Wnt Off

16.02.43

White, E D G

Sgt

26.04.43

Winsor, K E

Sgt

02.03.43

Woodman, W A

Wnt Off

23.03.43

No.37 Squadron (Wellington)

On 8th November 1940, five Wellington bombers arrived at Luqa from the United Kingdom for operations against Italian and North African targets. A further seven reached Malta during the night of 12th/13th November. Another three aircraft arrived on the 19th but on 21st all remaining aircraft moved to Shallufa in Egypt. On 21st February 1942 a detachment of six Wellingtons from Shallufa returned to be followed by seven more the next day. During this period the Island was being subjected to heavy enemy bombing attacks. One by one bomber squadrons were withdrawn from Malta, partly to avoid destruction on the ground and partly to make way for fighter aircraft. The Wellington crews worked hard to redress the situation and during the night of 2nd/3rd March, No.37 made an outstanding attack on a large convoy assembling in Palermo harbour when three medium-sized ships were sunk. Nevertheless, as many of the Wellingtons were destroyed on the ground through enemy bombing, the remaining aircraft and crews withdrew from Malta at the end of March as it was impossible to base bombers on the Island on a permanent basis.

Asquith, J

LAC

08.03.42

Barnes, J R

Sgt

16.11.40

Baxter, J L

Sgt

21.02.41

Broad, R C W

Flg Off

21.02.41

Buttler, J G G

Sgt

16.11.40

Goodfellow, E

Sgt

09.03.42

Green,B W

Sgt

16.11.40

Herman, R M

Sgt RAAF

09.03.42

Hough, A G W

Flg Off

21.02.41

Knight, N J

Sgt RAAF

09.03.42

Kozlowski, S J

WO RCAF

08.03.42

Lattimer, A B

Sgt

16.11.40

Muir, G C

Plt Off

21.02.41

Ross, G A

Sgt

16.11.40

Scott, A A

Flg Off

21.02.41

Valler, J E

Sgt

21.02.41

Walker, H N

Sgt RAAF

08.03.42

Wilson, J G D

Sgt

16.11.40

No.38 Squadron (Wellington)

During November 1940 the squadron was ordered overseas, to Egypt, for attacks on enemy bases in Cyrenaica, Italy and the Balkans, a detachment moving to Luqa, Malta, between 9 August and 26 October 1941. 

Bold, P F

Sgt

23.09.41

Brown, W F P

F/Sgt

23.09.41

Mauchlen, D P F

Plt Off

30.08.41

Poole, W J

Sgt

23.09.41

Secomb, R

Sgt RAAF

23.09.41

Sheridan, J C

Sgt

23.09.41

Shirley-Thomson S G

Sgt

30.08.41

Toshack, R H

F/Sgt RCAF

23.09.41

No.39 Squadron (Beaufort)

During June 1942, a detachment of five Beauforts were flown to Malta for attacks against Axis shipping between Sicily and North Africa. On 20th August this detachment joined others of Nos.86 and 217 Squadrons to become No.39 Squadron. With the reduction of enemy shipping movements at the end of 1942, Beauforts stationed at Malta began minelaying operations in North African ports. During December, ten Beauforts left for Egypt, whilst six others remained on detachment. Strengthening of the squadron took place at the end of January 1943 when more Beauforts arrived for night operations. Several successful strikes on enemy merchant shipping took place during February. The unit moved to Tunisia later in 1943.

Abram, J

Flg Off

15.06.42

Bacon, T J

Sgt

14.04.42

Ballingall, N G

Sgt

15.06.42

Bee, D A R

Flg Off

14.04.42

Beveridge, R G W

Flt Lt

14.04.42

Blackmore, D G

F/Sgt

12.03.43

Blackmore, W A

Sgt

12.03.43

Boynton, T F P

Sgt

11.04.43

Brown, R J T

Flg Off

30.11.42

Bryant, C H

Sgt

14.04.42

Burrett, J R

F/Sgt RAAF

22.09.42

Burroughs, N A

Sgt

15.06.42

Calvert, A

Sgt

06.09.42

Chalmer, E D

Wnt Off RAAF

16.05.43

Clark, W

Sgt

30.11.42

Comrie, P

F/Sgt

24.02.43

Cox, E R

Sgt

06.09.42

Cunningham, J D

F/Sgt

06.09.42

Dawes, R V

Flg Off

11.04.43

Dawson, R J S

Plt Off RCAF

24.02.43

Dewhurst, L

Flg Off

24.08.42

Dixon, K M

F/Sgt RNZAF

14.04.42

Doodson, W L

Sgt

22.09.42

Duncan, K J P

Sgt

06.09.42

Eastman, A F

Sgt

11.04.43

Edge, H G

Sgt

15.06.42

Evans, R C B

Lt SAAF

06.09.42

Exton, P G

F/Sgt

12.03.43

Farrant, R C

Flg Off

11.04.43

Farrell, W G

Sgt

16.05.43

Flockhart, J

Sgt

15.06.42

Fobister, G

Sgt

15.06.42

Fox, F G

Sgt

15.06.42

Fox, G S

Sgt

14.04.42

Gamble, K

Sgt

30.11.42

Gibbons, R S, DFM

F/Sgt

06.09.42

Griffiths, W F B

Plt Off

23.06.42

Hazan, G

Sgt

23.06.42

Helme, L

F/Sgt

30.11.42

Hewetson, J C W

Plt Off

25.02.43

Howarth, T

Sgt

30.11.42

Izzard, A F

Flg Off RCAF

22.09.42

Jones, R

Flg Off

22.09.42

Keegan, T B

Sgt

14.04.42

Kerrigan G J

Wnt Off

23.06.42

Laverick, P

Lt (RN)

14.04.42

Leadbeater, G

Sgt

24.08.42

Littlewood, J E

Sgt

24.08.42

Marshall, R S O, DFC

Sqn Ldr RAAF

03.03.43

Mather, C

F/Sgt

06.01.43

McKenzie, D

Sgt

12.03.43

McLean, R

Sgt

30.11.42

Miller, A

Sgt

14.04.42

Nash, H J R

F/Sgt

14.04.42

Parker, J

F/Sgt

03.03.43

Paterson, D H

Flg Off RAAF

03.03.43

Payne, F J

Wnt Off II RCAF

16.05.43

Payne, N A

F/Sgt RCAF

14.04.42

Pearson, R

Sgt

24.02.43

Richards, W B

Sgt

26.02.43

Richards, W M D

Sgt

30.11.42

Seddon, R B

Flg Off

14.04.42

Sharman, D C

Flt Lt

06.09.42

Smith, T

Sgt

14.04.42

Sutherland, D

Sgt

24.02.43

Taylor, J E

Sgt

16.05.43

Thomas, C S

Flt Lt

15.06.42

Turner, A A

Flg Off

24.08.42

Twomey, R J

Flg Off RAAF

30.11.42

Wadham, M F N

Sgt

06.09.42

Watson, H H 

Sgt

23.06.42

Watson, R M

Plt Off

06.09.42

Way, B W

Plt Off

14.04.42

Weston, V O

Sgt

23.06.42

White, F H

F/Sgt

14.04.42

Wilsdon, R W

Flg Off RCAF

12.03.43

No.40 Squadron (Wellington)

On 24th October 1941, a detachment of seven Wellington Mk Ics arrived from the United Kingdom. These replaced the Wellingtons of No.38 Squadron which had flown in from Shallufa in Egypt, in batches, between 5th and 7th August 1941. They flew their last sorties from Malta on the night of 23rd/24th October, before returning to Shallufa. From Luqa, No.40 Squadron operated by night against ports and airfields in Sicily, Italy and North Africa. Losses sustained on operations were light but at Luqa the squadron’s strength was diminished by constant enemy bombing to such an extent that by March 1942 it stopped operations and in May, its remnants moved to Abu Sueir in Egypt. Regaining its strength there, it was able to re-establish a detachment in Malta in order to prevent supplies reaching Rommel in North Africa. In January 1943, the detachment joined its parent squadron in newly-captured airfields in Tunisia and Cyrenaica.

Abbott, L J

Sgt RAAF

06.12.41

Ackroyd, J T

Sgt

02.11.41

Arsenault, T J

Sgt RCAF

06.12.41

Aspell, E A

Sgt

03.12.42

Beard, E J

Sgt

26.10.41

Bebington, J H S

Plt Off

12.11.41

Bell, A D

Flg Off

07.12.42

Bryan, M

Sgt

05.01.42

Chabot, M R

F/Sgt RCAF

25.11.41

Chalmers, W

Sgt

05.01.42

Clarke, D J

LAC

08.05.42

Colville, G D

Sgt

02.11.41

Crosby, D Y N

Sgt RCAF

26.10.41

Davies, G I F

Cpl

26.10.41

Dawson, G T

F/Sgt

22.11.42

Eastman, C R 

Sgt

24.10.41

Forth, H M

Sgt

02.11.41

Gill, R

Sgt

07.12.42

Golby, D A D

Sgt

22.11.42

Greenhill, C P

Sgt

12.11.41

Hale, V J

Sgt

26.10.41

Hardman, C N

Sgt

14.12.41

Henderson, J I

Sgt RCAF

12.11.41

Hewitt, E W

Sgt

24.10.41

Heywood, S

Sgt

07.12.42

Higginson, H

F/Sgt

26.10.41

Hodges, W A

AC1

24.10.41

Irving, A N

Sgt RCAF

26.10.41

Jackson, R

Sgt

24.10.41

James, S H

Sgt

05.01.42

Kelly, D R

Sgt

25.11.41

Lewthwaite, J J

F/Sgt RNZAF

05.01.42

Lill, P F

Sgt

05.01.42

Lodge, A

Plt Off

26.10.41

Marshall, A

Sgt

07.12.42

McCalman, I R

Sgt RAAF

02.11.41

McCann, I T, BEM

AC1

24.11.41

Nicholls, B W

Sgt

24.10.41

Paine, J D

Sgt

24.10.41

Pick, W R

F/Sgt RCAF

05.01.42

Poole, W H

Sgt

06.12.41

Pyle, A J

Plt Off

06.12.41

Quinn, L H

LAC

24.03.42

Robinson, J B

Cpl

24.10.41

Robson, C

LAC

26.10.41

Robson, T W

Sgt

02.11.41

Saunders, C G R

Plt Off RCAF

26.10.41

Semley, R

Sgt

03.12.42

Shearsby, W

Sgt

23.11.41

Sherwood, E W

Sgt

24.10.41

Spry, E D

Sgt

02.11.41

Steadman, H L 

Sgt RCAF

26.10.41

Stephens, G S

Sgt

25.11.41

Stuart, W D

Sgt RNZAF

24.10.41

Sunley, F J

Sgt

18.12.41

Webb, J A

Sgt

15.02.42

Whitaker, H

Sgt

25.11.41

Wigley, H J

Sgt RAAF

07.12.42

No.43 Squadron (Spitfire)

The aircraft of No.43 Squadron flew into Hal Far airfield on 11th June 1943, in preparation for the invasion of Sicily, moving to Comiso on 14th July.

Barker, R O

Flg Off

04.07.43

Reading, P W

Flt Lt

04.07.43

No.46 Squadron (Hurricane)

Twenty-four Hurricanes of No.46 Squadron reached Hal Far on 6th June 1941, in Operation Rocket. The groundcrews and some pilots were sent by transport round the cape to Egypt, arriving there minus their aircraft and pilots which had gone to reinforce No.126 Squadron at Malta. Accordingly for nearly a year No.46 acted at Abu Sueir, in Egypt, as a maintenance unit until May 1942, when it absorbed Beaufighters from the flight of No.89 which was detached at Idku in Egypt. On 15th November, three Beaufighters of No.46 Squadron were ordered to fly to Malta on detachment, but all failed to arrive. Two days later, ten more were despatched and all arrived safely. Their first mission took place at dusk on Friday, 20th November when five aircraft flew to Sicily to strafe Trapani airfield.

Bate, A

Flg Off

22.11.42

Burnett, N W

Flt Lt

11.06.41

Duncan, H

Flg Off

15.11.42

Farmer, G

Plt Off

19.12.42

Glibbery, G A

Flg Off

15.11.42

Inskip, K F G

Flg Off

15.11.42

Naylor, C

Sgt

10.12.42

Perinchief, W H

Flg Off

10.12.42

Roberts, J F

Sgt

15.11.42

Roe, J R W

Flg Off

19.12.42

South, T S

Plt Off

15.11.42

White, J A

Flg Off

15.11.42

No.55 Squadron (Baltimore)

Wotherspoon, J H

Plt Off

25.07.43

Buchanan, C H

Flg Off

25.07.43

Derrick, A J

Flg Off 

25.07.43

Cottrell, W D F

Sgt

25.07.43

No.59 Squadron (Hudson)

Hankins, P

Sgt

18.01.42

Story, A W

Sgt

18.01.42

Wouldes, N F

Sgt RNZAF

18.01.42

No.60 Squadron (Blenheim)

Kemp, R W

AC1

15.02.42

No.69 Squadron (Maryland/Hurricane/Spitfire & Misc. aircraft)

On 10th January 1941, No.431 Flight at Luqa was re-designated No.69 Squadron. With its four Marylands it looked after the photo-reconnaissance of the Central Mediterranean following the move to Egypt of No.228 Squadron’s Sunderlands. Although more suitable than the Sunderlands for reconnoitring defended areas, it was asking too much of this small unit to cover the Sicilian airfields, the Italian and North African harbours and the sea routes in between, in addition to patrolling Malta and the Ionian islands. The squadron received some reinforcements in March, however, less than a handful were usually serviceable. Some Hurricanes were adapted for photo-reconnaissance duties. The squadron operated from Luqa except for a short while during November 1941 when it operated from Ta’ Qali. The squadron was on strength for the invasion of Sicily and Italy, moving there in February 1944.

Ainley, F R

Flg Off

29.03.41

Anderson, W E

Sgt RAAF

18.03.42

Batchelor, H B

F/Sgt

24.11.41

Bidgood, M A

Sgt

21.07.43

Blaize, G

F/Sgt (French)

22.09.41

Bland, R M

Sgt

10.11.42

Bolton, M H S

F/Sgt

26.06.41

Boyd, V L

Wnt Off I RCAF

04.05.43

Boys-Stones, J B

Flg Off

07.03.41

Burgess, A B

Flg Off RCAF

10.11.42

Burgess, J T

Flg Off

09.11.40

Chandler, J

F/Sgt RAAF

23.02.43

Clark, C

F/Sgt

11.08.41

Conway, J L J

Wnt Off II RCAF

18.02.43

Cook, C O

Wnt Off II RCAF

18.02.43

Cooke, I E

Flg Off

02.09.43

Corbett, G A

Sgt

11.07.42

Cottrell, S G

F/Sgt RNZAF

21.04.43

Cragg, E W

Sgt

25.08.42

Currie, M

Capt SAAF

14.03.43

Delehaunt, A G J

F/Sgt

18.03.42

Dive, P B

Sgt RAAF

23.12.41

Dowland, J N, GC

Wg Cdr

13.01.42

Duvauchelle, R, Legion d’Honneur, Croix de Guerre

F/Sgt (French)

11.01.41

Fisher, B

Wnt Off II RCAF

10.11.42

Foster, J H P

Flg Off

25.08.42

Francombe, J

Flt Lt

08.01.43

Frazer, J A

Flg Off RAAF

11.01.43

Gatien, R

F/Sgt (French)

22.09.41

Gell, A T

Plt Off RAAF

08.01.43

Gimson, E W, DFM*

F/Sgt

26.06.41

Greaves, A

F/Sgt RAAF

15.06.42

Gridley, R V

Plt Off

13.01.42

Grimley, R K

Sgt RAAF

18.03.42

Hanson, B P

F/Sgt

26.06.41

Harris, A D

F/Sgt RAAF

15.06.42

Harvey, R

F/Sgt

25.08.42

Hawcroft, D

Sgt

21.07.43

Heywood, R A

Flg Off

23.02.43

Hoare, J T

AC1

15.01.42

Howard, D T

Sgt

18.12.42

Hubbard, B F R

Sgt

09.11.40

Hudson, W

Sgt

02.09.43

Hutt, J K

Sgt

24.11.41

James, F G

Flg Off RCAF

10.11.42

Jemmett, F C M

Flg Off RCAF

15.11.42

Johnson, K W

Flg Off

04.05.43

Lamble, R B

AC2

15.01.42

Lankshear, E H

F/Sgt RNZAF

21.04.43

Laver, L C

F/Sgt RAAF

08.01.43

Lawrence, D L J

Sgt RAAF

13.08.41

Le Dieu, H V

F/Sgt

10.01.43

Lee, C F

Sgt RAAF

15.07.41

Levy, J

Sgt

07.03.41

Lewsley, F

F/Sgt

10.11.42

Locke, H F

F/Sgt RCAF

10.11.42

Long, A J

Sgt

10.01.43

Maginnis, A J

Sgt

21.07.43

Marsden, D

Sgt

23.03.43

Mathews, W H, DFC

Flg Off RCAF

10.11.42

McClure, C M

Flg Off

04.05.43

McCrea, M F

Sgt

25.08.42

McKell, D A

Sgt RAAF

24.11.41

McMahon, T J

Sgt

04.05.43

McNall, B C

Wnt Off II RCAF

10.11.42

Mehouas, J

Sgt (French)

11.01.41

Metcalfe, H B

F/Sgt

23.12.41

Millband, A

Sgt

21.07.43

Milne, J S

Plt Off

18.02.43

Moffatt, B J

Flg Off RCAF

10.11.42

Moore, A C

Sgt

12.02.42

Morgan, A J

Sgt

02.09.43

Mutimer, R S, DFM

Sgt

10.08.41

Nash, R

Plt Off

18.02.43

Neill, J C G

Sgt RAAF

15.07.41

Oldrieve, F R

F/Sgt

23.02.43

Olsen, F L

Wnt Off II RCAF

10.11.42

Parker, G B

Sgt RAAF

18.03.42

Patrick, A H

Plt Off

15.06.42

Porter, R F C

Wnt Off II RCAF

21.04.43

Ray, V B

Flg Off RCAF

10.11.42

Richardson, A A

Sgt

10.01.43

Saggers, E F

F/Sgt RAAF

08.01.43

Sanders, E C

Sgt

15.06.42

Shearer, B W

Sgt RAAF

08.01.43

Simpson, J McK

Sgt RAAF

15.07.41

Smailes, P

Plt Off

14.03.43

Smith, D A

F/Sgt RAAF

08.01.43

Sobey, P A

Sgt

09.11.40

Sullivan, J B

F/Sgt RAAF

23.02.43

Taylor, G

Sgt

11.01.41

Vaughan, M P

Sgt

10.01.43

Warburton, W D

Sgt

15.06.42

Waters, E

F/Sgt

21.04.43

Wathern, D A

F/Sgt

11.07.42

Watt, J M

Sgt

10.11.42

Wells, P C

F/Sgt

23.12.41

Whelpdale, F G, DFC

Flg Off

14.03.43

Williams, E J A, DFC

Flt Lt

15.01.42

Williams, T C

Sgt

02.09.43

Woolley, S

Sgt

11.07.42

Wylde, P R

Flt Lt

10.08.41

Yates, H J

Cpl

02.08.42

No.72 Squadron (Spitfire)

On 10th June 1943, No.72 Squadron flew into Hal Far airfield in preparation for the invasion of Sicily, moving to Comiso on 17th July.

Griffiths, A M

Sgt

16.07.43

Prytherch, D J

Flt Lt

18.06.43

Sharp, G C

Flg Off RAAF

20.06.43

No.73 Squadron (Hurricane)

A detachment from No.73 Squadron was sent to Malta and operated from Luqa.

Bramley, E F

F/Sgt

09.07.43

No.82 Squadron (Blenheim)

On 21 May 1941, a detachment of five No.82 Squadron Blenheim Mk IV light bombers was sent to Malta, one aircraft being lost en route. Their role was to carry out low-level anti-shipping attacks on Axis convoys plying from Naples, Taranto and Brindisi to Tripoli and Benghazi. The Blenheims were absorbed by other units and in March 1942, the squadron left for the Far East.

Alers-Hankey, N C

Plt Off

11.06.41

Austin, R J

Sgt

27.05.41

Beirnes, D W

F/Sgt RCAF

04.01.42

Chaning-Pearce, P

Sgt

04.01.42

Cover, J A

Sgt RCAF

29.06.41

Evans, C G

F/Sgt

21.05.41

Fairbairn, G M

Flt Lt

27.05.41

Fairweather, R G S

Sgt

29.06.41

Guy, A L

Sgt

04.01.42

Harrison, J N

Sgt

19.06.41

Higgins, P J

Plt Off

27.05.41

Inman, E B

Sgt

27.05.41

Kemp, S W

Sgt

27.05.41

MacDonald, L R

Sgt

19.06.41

Mander, R M

Sgt

04.01.42

McNally, W C

F/Sgt RCAF

04.01.42

Murcutt, A D F

Sgt

05.07.41

Oaten, J

Sgt

05.07.41

Poole, R M

Sgt

11.06.41

Robbins, J J H

Sgt

04.01.42

Rowbotham, L N

Sgt

19.06.41

Thomas, A T

Sgt

29.06.41

Watson, M L

Sqn Ldr

11.06.41

Wrightson, L H

F/Sgt

21.05.41

No.86 Squadron (Beaufort)

On 13th July 1942, several flights of Beauforts set out from Gibraltar for Malta; a total of sixteen aircraft were detailed to arrive, their ultimate destination being Egypt. One aircraft was forced to ditch on the way. A number of these aircraft and crews were kept at Malta and, together with other remaining aircraft crews of this type already based on the Island, were amalgamated into a newly-formed unit. Further elements of No.86 Squadron arrived in August to provide support to the forthcoming Operation Pedestal convoy.

Green, J G

Sgt

24.07.42

Holt, G C

Sgt

25.07.42

Hyde, J H, DFC

Sqn Ldr

24.07.42

Lowing, W A

Plt Off RAAF

24.07.42

Sutherland, E P

Wnt Off I RCAF

28.07.42

West, R C

Sgt

24.07.42

No.89 Squadron (Beaufighter)

No.89 Squadron was the first Beaufighter night-fighter squadron to be deployed overseas. Formed in the United Kingdom for that purpose, it became operational at Abu Sueir, in Egypt, in January 1942. A new detachment planned for Malta for mid-January did not materialise. On 7th March three Beaufighter night-fighters arrived at Ta’ Qali from Abu Sueir to form No.1435 NF Flight at Ta’ Qali. On 22nd June 1942, the squadron sent ‘C’ Flight to Malta in support of Operation Harpoon and operate under its own identity, No.1435 NF Flight being disbanded. On 15 July, the detachment moved to Luqa. The Beaufighter NFs destroyed many night raiders over the Island, however, they suffered from enemy jamming of their radio and radar interception aids, but their influence was sufficient to deter mass raids, so that day and night air defence of Malta was reasonably assured by the end of July. The unit’s presence on the Island lasted until March 1943 when it moved back to Egypt.

Garrod, G D

Flg Off

15.01.43

Greatrex, F D W

Flg Off

15.01.43

Lea, R F

Sgt

04.01.43

Waddingham, J, DFC

Flt Lt

27.09.42

Webb, C C

F/Sgt

20.01.43

No.92 Squadron (Spitfire)

From Tunisia the squadron flew to Luqa, Malta, on 14th June 1943, to cover the landings ion Sicily, moving to Pachino on 13th July.

Savage, T W 

Flt Lt

10.07.43

No.104 Squadron (Wellington)

On 18th October 1941, Wellington Mk IICs arrived from the United Kingdom via Gibraltar for Malta, these were to relieve No.38 Squadron. They were accompanied by their crews as well as some ground crew. Meanwhile, the home echelon continued to operate until February 1942, when it was renumbered No.158 Squadron. At Malta, No.104 was based at Luqa alongside No.40 Squadron but owing to constant enemy bombing of Luqa airfield, the squadron’s strength was diminished to such an extent that it was forced to move to Egypt in January 1942. With reduced German air units in Sicily and the Italians only mounting raids by night, the situation had improved sufficiently by 24th May for a detachment to return to Luqa and resume bombing of Italian naval bases and convoy patrols. In June, the Wellingtons were withdrawn to make way for one squadron of torpedo-bombers. With the arrival of three more supply convoys during December 1942, the offensive capacity rose swiftly. As early as 6th November, the operational echelon arrived on the Island in order to assist the initial assault at Algiers. Nos.104 and 40 Squadrons returned to Luqa to raid Tunisian and Sicilian airfields. This they did until 23rd January 1943, when both squadrons moved to Gardabia, in Cyrenaica, to resume normal bombing operations.

Bell, J

Sgt

31.12.42

Booth, L

Sgt

17.12.42

Campbell, A

Sgt

31.12.42

Coakey, A M

Sgt

28.12.42

Cope, K C W

Flg Off

26.11.42

Cottrell, R T

Sgt RNZAF

28.12.42

Coulter, R L

Flg Off RCAF

17.12.42

Craig, L L A

F/Sgt RNZAF

07.11.42

Davies, E M G

Sgt

22.10.41

Davis, G R C

F/Sgt RCAF

29.05.42

Donald, K L

Sgt RNZAF

07.11.42

Earney, H H

F/Sgt RNZAF

07.11.42

Fearnside, J

Wnt Off II RCAF

19.11.42

Gray, C E

F/Sgt

19.11.42

Hammond, W E

Sgt RNZAF

19.11.42

Holmes, B C D

Sgt

19.11.42

Holmes, O L

Sgt

07.11.42

Iremonger, D L

Wnt Off

31.12.42

Jeffries, S

Wnt Off II RCAF

28.12.42

Kellett, J J

Sgt

06.01.43

Layton, J W

Sgt

19.11.42

Lines, H G, DFM

Sgt

17.12.42

Lonsdale, T

Flg Off

06.01.43

Martin, E G

Sgt

06.06.42

McColl, A

Sgt

29.05.42

Mercer, J H D

Flt Lt

19.11.42

Merritt, A R

Sgt

24.05.42

Morrison, S C

Flg Off

07.11.42

O’Keefe, G A

Sgt RAAF

06.01.43

Paterson, A S B

F/Sgt RAAF

07.11.42

Pritchard, T J

Sgt

31.12.42

Redmond, J J

Sgt

06.01.43

Roberts, E K

Sgt

29.05.42

Ross, K J

F/Sgt

29.05.42

Schrump, S Q

F/Sgt RCAF

31.12.42

Silver, G C

Flg Off RCAF

17.12.42

Stansbury, C N

F/Sgt

28.12.42

Strutt, J C, DFC

Sqn Ldr

06.01.43

Turner, E C 

F/Sgt RAAF

28.12.42

Van Gelder, N

Sgt

28.12.42

Wright, E H

Sgt

31.12.42

Yudell, I N

F/Sgt RCAF

06.01.43

No.105 Squadron (Blenheim)

On 25th July 1941, the squadron sent a detachment of twelve Blenheim bombers to Malta. However, only ten arrived at Malta on 28th July, one aircraft having landed in Portugal was interned. The other was delayed en route and arrived on 30th. The unit immediately took over No.110 Squadron’s remaining Blenheims, these being flown to Egypt for dispersal to the squadrons there. No.105 Squadron was to carry out attacks on enemy ports and shipping in the Central Mediterranean. The unit returned to the United Kingdom on 11th October 1941.

Barnett, L M

F/Sgt

22.09.41

Bastin, S G

Sgt

26.08.41

Bendall, J

F/Sgt

17.09.41

Brown, A

F/Sgt

17.09.41

Charney, F R H, DFC

Sqn Ldr

12.09.41

Gray, B, DFM

F/Sgt

22.09.41

Harris, D R

Sgt

12.09.41

Healy, W B

Sgt

26.08.41

Hill, C H

Sgt

17.09.41

Hoare, D A D

Sgt

15.08.41

Jones, J E

Sgt

04.09.41

Mortimer, J E

Sgt

12.09.41

Owen, C D

Flg Off

12.09.41

Parry, L D

Sgt

04.09.41

Porteous, S

Sgt

12.09.41

Ramsay, A S, DFC

Plt Off

01.08.41

Reid, D J

Sgt

12.09.41

Roe, H J

Flg Off

15.08.41

Samways, S R

F/Sgt

15.08.41

Scivier, D W, AFC

Wg Cdr

22.09.41

Scott, R J

Sgt

26.08.41

Sorensen, H

Plt Off

15.08.41

Standfast, P H

Plt Off

15.08.41

Timms, J D

F/Sgt

15.08.41

Wallace, W H

Sgt

04.09.41

No.107 Squadron (Blenheim)

The squadron sent a detachment of Blenheim Mk Ivs, which reached Malta by 15th September 1941, for its first operation from Luqa. These were employed in strafing enemy shipping and attacks on bases in Sicily, Italy and North Africa. But, as several losses were suffered on the ground through enemy bombing during the winter months, the detachment was withdrawn on 9th January 1942, and disbanded three days later.

Bloodworth, C O

Plt Off

09.10.41

Brenton, E H

Sgt RAAF

16.10.41

Brooks, B F

Sgt

17.09.41

Burcher, L J

Sgt

04.12.41

Burrell, F

Sgt

17.09.41

Calderwood, J S A

F/Sgt RCAF

13.12.41

Crossley, E

Sgt

24.12.41

Darcy, D P

Sgt

22.12.41

Gibson, J

Sgt

08.11.41

Gracie, R D

Sgt

13.12.41

Greenhill, R A

Flg Off

11.10.41

Hamilton, I

Sgt

08.11.41

Harte, F A, DFC

Wg Cdr

09.10.41

Henley, R F J

Sgt

22.12.41

Hewson, K T

Sgt

24.12.41

Hopkinson, W A

Sgt RAAF

08.11.41

Hunting, W K

Sgt

09.10.41

Jones, S

Sgt

09.10.41

Kidby, R G

Sgt 

04.12.41

Law, W E

Plt Off

24.09.41

Luke, H G

Sgt

24.12.41

McAllister, S

Flg Off

16.10.41

McLean, A P

F/Sgt RCAF

13.12.41

McLeod, G F

Sgt RCAF

11.10.41

Parker, R N

Sgt

11.10.41

Parsons, H F D

Sgt

22.12.41

Paul, I

Plt Off

24.12.41

Pickup, J

Sgt

17.12.41

Robinson, P E C

Plt Off

17.09.41

Routh, A D M

Sgt

11.10.41

Shaver, W T

F/Sgt RCAF

26.10.41

Smith, A M

Sgt

11.10.41

Stanier, A

Sgt

27.10.41

Talbot, E E A, GC, MBE 

Lt (Royal Engineers) 

09.10.41

Warren, T J S, DFC

Sqn Ldr

24.09.41

Waterfall, J T

Flg Off

24.09.41

Wewege-Smith, T

Flg Off

09.10.41

Whidden, C A

Sgt RCAF

04.11.41

Whitford-Walders, N

Flg Off

09.10.41

Wincott, G L

Sgt

25.10.41

No.108 Squadron (Beaufighter)

During March 1943, No.108 changed from a bomber to a fighter squadron. At Shandur, in Egypt, equipped with Beaufighters, it absorbed No.89 Squadron’s unofficial flight detached at Malta. With a detachment at Luqa, it flew night convoy patrols and offensive patrols north of Tunisia. By June, the squadron had moved to Malta and began intruding over Sicily, then flew beachhead patrols when Operation Husky took place in July. The squadron then reverted for a while to defence patrols of Malta.

Adams, C F

F/Sgt

13.06.44

Alpe, H T

Sgt

02.05.44

Barton, A T

Flg Off

17.04.44

Broadbent, T R

Wnt Off

02.05.44

Bunn, J G

Sgt

18.06.44

Chambers, K E

Plt Off

18.05.44

Coster,G L

Flg Off

08.03.44

Daniel, C H Mc K

F/Sgt RAAF

14.12.43

Edwards, H G, DFC

Sqn Ldr

05.05.43

Farquharson, A W, DFM

Plt Off

12.07.43

Firth, K

Sgt

18.06.44

Forsyth, M R

Sgt

17.04.44

Gill, M H

Plt Off

17.07.44

Hobbs, A P R

Plt Off

13.07.44

Jones, J G

F/Sgt

08.03.44

Pocock, D R 

F/Sgt

12.01.44

Riches, R L

Coder, Royal Navy

17.04.44

Smith, H R

Flt Lt RCAF

13.06.44

Spencer, K R E

Plt Off

17.07.44

Street, D A

Sgt

05.05.43

Ward, D R

F/Sgt

18.05.44

White, B K

Plt Off

13.07.44

Williams, J L

Wnt Off

16.01.44

Yeo, C E

Flg Off

12.01.44

No.110 Squadron (Blenheim)

On 29th June 1941, a detachment of seventeen Blenheims was sent to Malta, arriving in batches between 2nd and 4th July. This operated from Luqa alongside No.82 Squadron and carried out low-level anti-shipping attacks on Axis convoys plying the Mediterranean until 28th July. 

Baird, R E

Sgt

09.07.41

Broadway, J A

Sgt

15.07.41

Cathles, N A C

Plt Off

23.07.41

Child, B J

Sgt

23.07.41

Cox, R L

F/Sgt

14.06.41

Elmes, E S

Sgt

14.08.41

Hunt, T M, DFC

Wg Cdr

18.07.41

Lowe, W H

Plt Off

09.07.41

Lummus, H

Sgt

09.07.41

McDougall, W H

F/Sgt

09.07.41

Mulford, F B

F/Sgt

09.07.41

Newborough, S G

Plt Off

23.07.41

Potier, M E

Flt Lt

09.07.41

Sargent, W H

F/Sgt

22.07.41

Seale, D H

Sqn Ldr

09.07.41

Thripp, F S

F/Sgt

18.07.41

Tucker, K C

F/Sgt

18.07.41

No.111 Squadron (Spitfire)

From North Africa the squadron flew to Safi, Malta, on 10th June, to cover the landings in Sicily, moving to Comiso on 15th July.

Mellor, F

Plt Off

03.07.43

No.112 Squadron (Kittyhawk)

From Tunisia the squadron flew to Safi, Malta, on 9th July, to cover the landings in Sicily, moving to Pachino on 18th July.

Norton, G H

Sqn Ldr

13.07.43

Vance, F R

Wnt Off RCAF

13.07.43

No.113 Squadron (Blenheim)

On 27 September 1941, three Blenheim Mk IVF fighters were despatched on detachment from No.113 Squadron in Egypt to provide convoy escorts and anti-submarine patrols. During January 1942, another reinforcement flight consisting of long-range Blenheim Mk IVFs, with a 20mm cannon in the nose, was despatched to Malta by No.113 Squadron to intercept Axis aircraft ferrying troops and supplies to North Africa from Sicily.

Crossley, H

F/Sgt

28.09.41

Smith, A E

F/Sgt

28.09.41

Swan, J

F/Sgt

28.09.41

No.117 Squadron (Hudson)

The squadron carried freight and passengers.

Stringfellow, P

Sgt

06.04.43

No.126 Squadron (Hurricane/Spitfire)

On 28th June 1941, a third fighter unit was formed on Malta, from No.46 Squadron. On 30th June the unit moved from Hal Far to Ta’ Qali, however, for a brief period the aircraft were dispersed at newly-constructed Safi strip. The unit was initially equipped with the early type Hurricanes as well as some of the new Mk IICs and thrown into battle right away. The squadron scrambled daily to face both German and Italian raiders with a degree of success, but lack of spares and few replacement aircraft hampered its operations. During October, it took the offensive and its ‘Hurribombers’ attacked Comiso airfield. This was the start of a series of fighter-bomber operations for the unit as following the receipt of Spitfire Mk Vs during 1942, the squadron went a step further, and with locally improvised bomb racks, Spitfire fighter-bombers were used as from August, to attack airfield targets in Sicily. As the pressure on Malta eased, the squadron went more on the offensive and during March 1943 it was the first unit on Malta to receive a few Mk IXs which then operated alongside the unit’s Mk Vs. The squadron supported the invasion of Sicily as part of No.324 Wing.

Baker, C H

Flt Lt

21.03.42

Brooker, S F

Plt Off

21.04.42

Curtis, J

LAC

02.09.41

Davidson, G G

Flt Lt RCAF

14.11.42

Davidson, J

AC2

02.09.41

Emery, F R

F/Sgt

24.12.41

French, T J C

Cpl

16.05.42

Hackston, T

Sgt

04.07.41

Hallett, W C H

Plt Off

21.03.42

Hicks, J L

Plt Off

09.07.42

Jemmett, F J

Plt Off

22.04.42

Jones, R O

Flt Lt (American)

17.10.42

Kelly, G H

Plt Off RCAF

19.11.42

Keynes, J D, MiD

Flt Lt

04.06.43

Kirkham, W A 

LAC

22.05.43

Lapish, H, MiD

AC1

02.07.42

Leckie, J A

F/Sgt RCAF

25.06.43

Long, J H

Flt Lt RCAF

28.01.43

MacLean, D D

F/Sgt RNZAF

11.10.42

Main, B W

Plt Off

04.02.42

Maltby, J F E

Sgt

26.08.41

Mayall, J M

Plt Off RAAF

10.03.42

McCarthy, W F

Plt Off RCAF

02.04.42

McCracken, J D

F/Sgt

19.07.41

Meyrick, G E G

AC1

02.07.42

Mulloy, G F R

Sgt

18.03.42

Otis, J E

F/Sgt RCAF

19.07.42

Park, N M, DFM

Plt Off RNZAF

25.10.42

Pennock, T

Sgt

07.04.43

Preston, I F

Plt Off RCAF (American)

23.09.42

Putnam, H A

Plt Off RCAF (American)

21.04.42

Rennolds, J

F/Sgt

22.05.43

Reynolds, B W

F/Sgt RCAF

10.07.42

Roberts, H

Sgt RNZAF

19.11.42

Russell, J K

Plt Off

25.01.42

Ryckman, G A J

Plt Off RCAF

20.04.42

Smith, J A

Plt Off RCAF

10.08.42

Steele, E E

Plt Off (American)

19.12.41

Stevenson, J D

Flg Off RCAF

18.10.42

Streets, E E

Plt Off (American)

21.03.42

Sussems, D G

Cpl

16.05.42

Sutton, E C 

F/Sgt

08.06.43

Tanner, J H

F/Sgt RNZAF

13.08.42

Tedford, D A

Plt Off (American)

24.02.42

Thompson, W A

LAC

02.09.41

Wallace, E W

Flg Off RCAF

16.10.42

Wicks, B J, DFC

Sqn Ldr

12.10.42

No.139 Squadron (Blenheim)

On 16th May 1941, the squadron sent a detachment of five Blenheims from the United Kingdom via Gibraltar, to operate from Luqa on anti-shipping duties over the Mediterranean until 5th June.

Hyde, T E

Sgt

03.06.41

Pepper, N E W, DFC

Wg Cdr

03.06.41

No.145 Squadron (Spitfire)

From North Africa, the squadron moved to Luqa, Malta, on 14th June to carry out offensive patrols over Sicily, moving to Pachino on 13th July.

Daley, E A

F/Sgt RAAF

04.07.43

No.148 Squadron (Wellington)

On 1st December 1940, the Malta Wellington Flight was given new status as No.148 Squadron. Its Wellingtons continued to attack ports and airfields in Sicily, Italy and Cyrenaica until 27th April 1941, when the remaining seven Wellingtons moved to Egypt. A detachment returned on 19th June leaving the island once again for Egypt on 19th July. No.148 continued to use Malta as an advanced base until disbanded on 14th December 1942.

Adams, H P

F/Sgt

09.04.41

Backes, T D

AC1

18.01.41

Balinson, A

F/Sgt RCAF

24.04.42

Barlow, E S

AC1

18.01.41

Buckley, M W

Sgt

24.04.42

Bunnett, G

Sgt

07.12.42

Cameron, D H

Sgt

28.01.41

Charron, A E

F/Sgt RCAF

24.04.42

Clifton, K W

Sgt

09.04.41

Cramp, P

F/Sgt

09.04.41

Ford, E

LAC

08.12.42

Grandfield, C R

Sgt

08.12.42

Hall, G C

Sgt

14.01.41

Harper, R M

Flg Off RAAF

23,04.42

Hearfield, S V

Sgt

13.01.41

Hosking, T P

Sgt

23.04.42

Kehoe, J B

Sgt

24.04.42

King, D C

Sgt

24.04.42

King, G H

Sgt

23.04.42

Kitchen, J I

F/Sgt

07.12.42

March, E H

Sgt

24.04.42

May, A H

Sgt

28.01.41

McNamara, J L

Sgt RNZAF

09.04.41

Moody, H L, DFM

Sgt

09.04.41

Noble, G K, DFC

Plt Off

12.01.41

Perrin, R T

Sgt

23.04.42

Powell, H C 

Sgt

23.04.42

Reardon, J

Sgt

13.01.41

Reay, T

Sgt

28.01.41

Sellors, J E

Sgt

09.04.41

Stidolph, J, MiD

Plt Off

13.01.41

Tull, G W

Sgt

24.04.42

Verran, R C, DFM, MiD

Sgt

13.01.41

Warren, W

Sgt

28.01.41

Wear, E F

Sgt

23.04.42

Wilson, J I

Sgt

12.01.41

No. 152 Squadron (Spitfire)

From North Africa the squadron moved to Ta’ Qali, Malta on 6 June for sweeps over Sicily and to cover the Allied landings there in July, transferring to Lentini (East) on 27July.

Quine, R 

Wnt Off RAAF

12.07.43

No. 157 Squadron (Mosquito)

Wills, D W

Flg Off

27.01.44

No. 162 Squadron (Wellington)

A small detachment was located at Luqa, arriving there on 9th May 1943, and consisting of three Wellingtons IC – DV647, DV931 and DV972. The Squadron’s task included radar calibration, locating and identifying enemy radar stations and jamming enemy tank radios. On 18th May Wellington DV931 was lost, from Malta, on a reconnaissance mission.

Bousfield, J W

Sgt

18.05.43

Cheese, C A

Plt Off

18.05.43

Eastwick, A L

Sgt

18.05.43

McCarthy, C L

F/Sgt

18.05.43

McKim, A D

Sgt

18.05.43

Muir, J D AFM

F/Sgt 

18.05.43

Parry, D

Sgt

18.05.43

Van der Linden, H D

Flt Lt SAAF

18.05.43

No. 185 Squadron (Hurricane/Spitfire)

On 12th May 1941, the squadron reformed at Hal Far. This was the second squadron to be formed on the Island, this time with pilots mainly from ‘C’ Flight of No.261 Squadron and ground personnel from Nos.251 and 261 Squadrons and No.1430 Flight. Equipped initially with Hurricane Mk Is, the squadron met the Italian raiders with success but later, though equipped with Hurricane Mk IIs, victories became harder to come by with the re-appearance of the Luftwaffe in the skies over Malta. The year 1942 kept the squadron on the alert with frequent scrambles and convoy patrols whenever a relief convoy fought its way to the Island. In May, No.185 received its first Spitfires and by June was completely re-equipped. These were a great help and in the following months more offensive flying took place with ‘Hurribomber’ escorts and fighter sweeps. This continued until the end of the year when it resumed fighter-bomber work. By now the squadron was almost entirely on sweeps and bomber escorts in preparation for the invasion of Sicily. This it helped cover as part of No.322 Wing.

Allardice, P M

Plt Off

22.03.42

Bailey, G G

Flg Off

09.11.41

Boyd, J L, DFM

Plt Off RAAF

14.05.42

Campbell, A C

AC2

24.03.42

Carmody, C J

Wnt Off RCAF

08.02.43

Chaffe, R I

Sqn Ldr

22.02.42

Cousens, R A

F/Sgt

21.11.41

Cruickshank, W A

Plt Off

19.10.43

Dyer, R O

F/Sgt

06.10.43

Finlay, C V

Sgt

14.05.42

Fletcher, J W S

Plt Off RCAF

28.04.42

Forth, A J

F/Sgt

29.12.41

Gallichan, H T

LAC

24.03.42

Guthrie, J W

Plt Off

02.08.42

Guy, D G

Sgt

07.12.42

Haggas, H

F/Sgt

07.07.42

Hamilton, C E, DFC, MiD

Plt Off

14.05.41

Hartney, D J

Wnt Off I RCAF

03.01.43

Haslam, R

Cpl

24.03.42

Hayes, B

F/Sgt

21.12.41

Haynes, J

LAC

24.03.42

Howieson, G

Sgt RauxAF

16.06.43

Kent, D W

Flg Off

23.07.42

Knight, E G

Sgt

25.10.41

Lee, E J

AC1

24.03.42

Lindsay, A I

Flt Lt

23.10.42

Lintern, D W

Plt Off

30.09.41

Lowry, J

Wnt Off I RCAF

02.07.43

MacLeod, A O

F/Sgt RCAF

13.10.42

Manchip, A R

AC1

24.03.42

Maynard, A R H

Flg Off

22.11.42

McFarlane, J

Plt Off RCAF

28.04.42

McLeod, M L

Sgt RNZAF

02.08.42

McNaughton, A A

Plt Off RCAF

01.06.42

Miller, J N, MiD

Plt Off RCAF

20.03.43

Mould, P W O, DFC*

Sqn Ldr

01.10.41

Moye, E D

F/Sgt RCAF

06.07.42

Ormrod, O O, DFC

Plt Off

22.04.42

Park, R B

Flg Off RAAF

19.11.42

Pitt, J C

LAC

10.10.42

Pratt, E F

Sub Lt RNZNVR

19.01.43

Reid, D G, DFM

Plt Off RCAF

22.07.42

Russel, H R

Plt Off RCAF

20.07.42

Saunders, R H

Sgt

24.10.42

Sly, R H C

Flt Lt RAAF

09.05.42

Steele, A C

Plt Off

31.03.42

Swain, L H

F/Sgt

13.09.42

Tarbuck, J

Plt Off

01.04.43

Terry, P C

F/Sgt

07.07.42

Tindall, L J

AC1

27.03.42

Turpin, C

LAC

24.03.42

Tweedale, G R, DFM

Plt Off RAAF

09.05.42

Veitch, P J B

Plt Off

04.10.41

Vinall, J D

Sgt

12.10.42

Walker, N M

Sgt

12.06.41

Webb, A D

LAC

24.03.42

Weedon, A C H

Cpl RauxAF

08.04.43

Withy, H F

Flt Lt

25.05.43

Wynne, E V

Sgt

15.05.41

Yates, J S

F/Sgt

12.05.43

No.201 Squadron (Sunderland)

Allen, J

Plt Off

31.07.42

Bluck, W

Sgt

31.07.42

Collins, J A

F/Sgt

31.07.42

Fort, C G

Sgt RAAF

31.07.42

Goodings, J R

Sgt

31.07.42

Lewis, V

Sgt RAAF

31.07.42

Scarce, H

Sgt

31.07.42

Tomley, M J

F/Sgt

31.07.42

Traill, J R

Flt Lt

31.07.42

Wakefield, W H

Flt Lt

31.07.42

Williams, N

Sgt

31.07.42

No.203 Squadron (Blenheim/Maryland)

Maritime reconnaissance Blenheim Mk IVFs and Maryland Mk Is based at Bu Amud, in Egypt, shadowed Axis convoys steaming southwards heading for Tripoli and reported their positions so that the merchant vessels would be attacked.

Bowker, M B

Flt Lt

14.04.42

Checkley, J E

Sgt

15.02.42

Gordon, N

F/Sgt

15.04.42

Halbert, J B

Flg Off RAAF

15.04.42

Handfield, P P E T

Sgt RAAF

15.02.42

Hayes, H J

Sgt RAAF

14.04.42

Heywood, F

Sgt

23.03.43

Holloway, E G

Sgt RAAF

15.02.42

Parsons, C J S

F/Sgt RAAF

14.04.42

Preston, D H

Sgt

20.04.42

Rattee, W V

F/Sgt RCAF

23.03.43

Rogers, H

F/Sgt RAAF

15.04.42

Somerville, E N

Flg Off RAAF

15.04.42

Welsh, J R

Sgt

15.02.42

No.217 Squadron (Beaufort)

For the June 1942 convoy, No.217 Squadron, en route to India, together with Beauforts and Wellingtons from other squadrons, were grouped at Malta especially for the passage of the vital convoy Operation Vigorous. No.217 Squadron successfully engaged units of the Italian fleet which were chasing ships in the convoy to Malta. The unit was retained for anti-shipping operations in the Mediterranean until 25th August.

Bowyer, J A

Sgt

20.06.42

Connell, J

Sgt

21.06.42

Davis, D M

Sgt

03.07.42

Dennis, F K

Sgt

03.07.42

Frith, T

Sgt

22.06.42

Hodson, G L

Sgt

03.07.42

Hole, H

Sgt

03.07.42

Hutcheson, J

Sgt

03.07.42

King, W A R

Sgt

20.06.42

Lynn, R G, DFC

Sqn Ldr

21.06.42

Mercer, R G

Sgt

03.07.42

Minster, F J R T

Flg Off

20.06.42

Moschonas, J

Sgt

20.06.42

Norman, D W

Sgt

10.06.42

Smyth, W D

Sgt

21.06.42

Walls, F H

Sgt

21.06.42

Wallworth, J N

Sgt

22.07.42

Weaver, F S

Sgt RNZAF

03.07.42

York, L A

Sgt

03.07.42

No. 221 Squadron (Wellington)

A detachment of No.221 Squadron Wellingtons reached Luqa on 8th January 1942. This continued to operate ASV Wellington Mk VIIIs until 26th August when No.69 Squadron absorbed it. At Shallufa in Egypt, the squadron started to operate Wellington torpedo-bombers in addition to their reconnaissance aircraft in preparation for a move to Malta which took place on 22ndJanuary 1943. Each aircraft was loaded full of aircrew, groundcrew, equipment and a brace of torpedoes. The remainder of the accompanying groundcrew travelled in a Dakota and a Hudson. The squadron’s first success from Malta was in the Tyrrhenian Sea against ships bound for Tunisian ports. This initial success was very encouraging and during the following three to four months No.221 harassed enemy shipping around the coast of Italy, Sicily and Tunisia in an effort to prevent the passage of supplies to the Axis Forces in North Africa. The squadron crews ranged from Naples to Sardinia, Messina to Taranto and Bari but the main hunting ground was the Sicilian Narrows, between Sicily and Tunisia. The squadron moved to Italy during March 1944.

Ackland, R H

Flt Lt

24.03.44

Alford, H

Sgt

04.04.43

Anderson, F C

Flt Lt RCAF

02.02.43

Barker, M E

F/Sgt

02.02.43

Bateman, H N

Sgt

14.04.43

Bentley, A

Sgt

09.05.42

Bertran, R H, DFC

Sqn Ldr RCAF

02.02.43

Braine, H

Flg Off RAAF

07.02.43

Burns, R J

Sgt RAAF

23.01.43

Cameron, R

Sgt

24.03.44

Campbell, W F

Flg Off RCAF

04.01.44

Cardwell, R H

Sub/Lt RN (Special Obs)

23.12.41

Chuck, H G, DFM

Plt Off

04.04.43

Clayton, F A

Sgt

24.03.44

Cochrane, D N

Flg Off

27.02.43

Cock, W D

F/Sgt RAAF

04.01.44

Cornwell, L C

Sgt

30.12.43

Craig, J I

Flg Off RAAF

23.01.43

Creed, W G

Sgt

02.02.43

Daley, C J

F/Sgt RAAF

04.01.44

Davey, G F

Flg Off RAAF

27.02.43

Dempster, G W

Sgt

27.02.43

Dey, A A

F/Sgt RAAF

27.02.43

Ding, E J

Sgt RAAF

07.02.43

Douglas, J

Sgt

10.04.43

Dowds, R

LAC

15.08.43

Duncan, A F J

Flg Off

02.02.43

Fake, J E

Sgt

30.12.43

Fennah, D C

Flg Off RCAF

10.04.43

Few, F J

Cpl

09.05.42

Foulis, M, DFC*

Sqn Ldr

18.04.43

Fox, H D

Sgt RAAF

13.08.42

Fox, J

Sgt

04.04.43

Fraser, R I

Flt Lt

18.04.43

Gaudet, J R

Plt Off RCAF

18.04.43

Gorringe-Smith, J E

Sqn Ldr

09.05.42

Groom, P J

F/Sgt

04.04.43

Grosvenor, T F

F/Sgt

09.05.42

Hamilton, D P

Sgt

07.02.43

Hart, G L

F/Sgt

08.11.43

Hele, C J B

Sgt

04.04.43

Henderson, R

Sgt

15.04.43

Hewitt, H W

Sgt

30.12.43 

Hollies, D J

Flg Off

24.03.44

Hornung, W, DFM

F/Sgt RNZAF

10.04.43

Hunt, A

F/Sgt

07.02.43

Hurley, C R D

Wnt Off II RCAF

18.04.43

Jacklin, J F

Sgt RAAF

09.05.42

Jackson, G F

Sqn Ldr RAAF

23.01.43

Jamieson, C E

Sgt RCAF

27.02.43

Jones, N

Sgt

02.02.43

Keeble, N L

Flg Off

08.11.43

Keen, D

Flg Off

24.03.44

Kenyon, R T

Flt Lt

03.03.43

Leslie, J A

Flg Off

09.05.42

Lowe, A

F/Sgt

04.04.43

MacDonald, D C

Sgt RCAF

03.03.43

Mayberry, R M

Wnt Off II RCAF

10.04.43

McArdIe, C A

Sgt RCAF

27.02.43

Miller, B W

Sgt

18.04.43

Milner, A J

Wnt Off RNZAF

10.04.43

Morton, W

Sgt

18.04.43

Murphy, J

Sgt

23.10.43

Neame, F A

Sgt

03.03.43

O’Neill, R B

Wnt Off RAAF

30.12.43

Page, T H

Sgt

18.04.43

Pain, G W, DFC

Flg Off

18.04.43

Penlington, A

Sgt

18.04.43

Phelps, C J

Wnt Off II RCAF

04.04.43

Reid, H G

Wnt Off I RCAF

04.01.44

Rowson, H

Plt Off

02.02.43

Sanford, N G D

Flt Lt

03.03.43

Scott, W

F/Sgt

18.04.43

Shaver, H W

Wnt Off I RCAF

08.11.43

Shusterove, S C

Flg Off RCAF

23.01.43

Spencer, F

Sgt

07.02.43

Stewart, A R

Plt Off RNZAF

08.11.43

Stripe, R

Sgt

30.12.43

Swanson, D M

Flg Off RCAF

18.04.43

Swift, R

Wnt Off RNZAF

08.11.43

Thompson, L E

Flg Off

18.04.43

Thompson, L J

F/Sgt

08.11.43

Tooze, R M

Wnt Off II RCAF

03.03.43

Towle, T

Sgt

03.03.43

Vials, S G

Sgt

23.01.43

Waite, G F J

Flg Off

07.02.43

Walker, H L

F/Sgt RAAF

04.01.44

White, W A

Flg Off RCAF

09.05.42

Wilde, G G

F/Sgt RNZAF

04.01.44

Wilson, C

F/Sgt RAAF

30.12.43

Wright, J

Sgt

10.04.43

Youngjohns, W A

Sgt

24.03.44

No.227 Squadron (Beaufighter)

On 20th August 1942, a detachment of Beaufighters of No.235 Squadron at Luqa was re-designated No.227 Squadron which then became independent. On 25th November 1942, the squadron moved over to join No.272 at Ta’ Qali. Its role included escort and anti-shipping duties as well as attacking enemy ships with bombs and cannon fire. No.227 moved to Idku in Egypt, on 16th February 1943.

Candler, C G

Sgt

14.11.42

Charlton, J L

Sgt

05.01.43

Cusworth, A J

Sgt

06.09.42

Davies, C L

Sgt

06.01.43

Day, P G F

Sgt

10.12.42

Dicker, J S

Plt Off

17.09.42

Fargher, G P

Wnt Off II RCAF

04.10.42

Featherstone, F W

F/Sgt

10.12.42

Franklin, F J

Sgt RNZAF

18.12.42

Goalby, P N

F/Sgt

06.01.43

Goff, W O

F/Sgt

31.01.43

Hughes, J E

Sgt

14.11.42

Hunt, L H

Flg Off

31.01.43

Johnson, C L

Flt Lt

23.11.42

Leslie, G D

Sgt

20.08.42

MacColl, C C

Plt Off

18.12.42

Miller, I R

F/Sgt

14.10.42

Moffatt, J D

Plt Off

17.09.42

Noome, F O

Lt SAAF

06.09.42

O’Hara, E

Sgt

27.08.42

Partridge, D de M

Flg Off RAAF

06.09.42

Pearson, R B

Flg Off

14.11.42

Rae, J A

Flt Lt RCAF

31.01.43

Reynolds, A M

Wnt Off II RCAF

31.01.43

Seddon, K

Sgt

27.08.42

Stephen, J M

Wnt Off II RCAF

13.11.42

Underwood, P L, DFC

Sqn Ldr

14.10.42

Vivian, A W

Sgt

06.09.42

Ward, B J

F/Sgt

05.01.43

Webb, R E

Sgt

23.11.42

Whear, S A

Sgt

13.11.42

Witherspoon, D M

Flg Off RCAF

14.11.42

No.228 Squadron (Sunderland)

At the beginning of June 1940 a detachment of No.228 Squadron Sunderland flyingboats flew out from the United Kingdom to Kalafrana to keep check on the Italian fleet. In October the unit moved entirely to Malta to fly anti-submarine patrols and reconnaissance missions in the Central Mediterranean. No.228 Squadronreplaced No.3 AACU which had disbanded earlier in September. Following particularly heavy raids during the first week of March 1941, Air Vice-Marshal Maynard reported that he was unable to protect the Sunderlands and together with No.148 Squadron Wellingtons left for Egypt that month.

Dawes, E

Sgt

01.11.40

Farries, S M

Flg Off

01.11.40

Fletcher, R

LAC

01.11.40

Hale, L C M

LAC

01.11.40

Harris, F

Sgt

01.11.40

Jones, A S

Sgt

07.03.41

Menzies, G L

Sqn Ldr

01.11.40

Nicholas, B E

LAC

01.11.40

Setterfield, E L

Sgt

01.11.40

Stamp, G A, DFM

Sgt

01.11.40

No.229 Squadron (Hurricane/Spitfire)

Ten cannon-armed Hurricane IICs of ‘A’ Flight, No.229 Squadron moved from El Firdan in Egypt, to Malta on 27th March 1942 and was soon in action scoring its first victory on 1st April. During that month the squadron lost several aircraft on the ground and was disbanded on the 29th. It reformed at Ta’ Qali on 3rd August with Spitfires from No.603 Squadron and was immediately in action again. The squadron was flying daily in action but by the end of the month it was on the offensive flying sweeps over Sicilian airfields. During the next two months there was little respite, Malta having up to a dozen raids a day in what became known as the October Blitz. On 10th December 1942, No.229 moved from Ta’ Qali to join No.249 at Qrendi, leaving the former base to the Beaufighters. Spitfire fighter-bombers were used during 1943 for attacking targets in Sicily. During July the squadron was on strength as part of No.322 Wing but when other units went over to Sicily, No.229 remained at Malta escorting transport aircraft and flying daily meteorological flights. It moved to Sicily in January 1944.

Biggs, S J

Wnt Off

07.01.44

Brooks, L D

F/Sgt RCAF

25.04.42

Cachia, G

AC1

03.07.43

Chaplin, A R

Flt Lt

17.01.43

Corfe, D F

Wnt Off RauxAF

25.04.42

Cornish, C H

Sgt

26.08.42

Foley, T G

Plt Off RCAF

28.04.42

Fullalove, J K

Sgt

21.04.42

Goodyear, S H K

Plt Off RCAF

15.02.43

Gosling, L C, DFC*

Flt Lt RCAF

19.07.43

Lees, R J

Sgt

06.05.42

Lundy, M A

F/Sgt

21.11.42

Magruder, E P F L T

Flt Lt

28.08.42

Miller, R

F/Sgt

17.10.42

Mowbray, J R

Flg Off RCAF

01.12.42

Newman, D G

Flg Off

26.08.42

Parks, W

F/Sgt RAAF

29.10.42

Pendlebury, J R

Sgt

18.05.42

Phimister, J M

LAC

13.05.43

Ripper, D E

F/Sgt RAAF

26.10.43

Salzman, R R

F/Sgt

05.07.43

Scott, J R

Plt Off RCAF

15.09.42

Smart, T, DFC*

Sqn Ldr

12.04.43

Wallace, T

Sgt

23.11.42

White, B E G

Sqn Ldr

05.07.43

Williams, A

Plt Off

12.07.43

No.230 Squadron (Sunderland)

In May 1940, the squadron was transferred to the Mediterranean where it flew reconnaissance missions for the Mediterranean Fleet and carried our anti-submarine patrols. In June 1943 other detachments were sent to the Mediterranean for air-sea rescue and transport duties.

Odhams, B E L

Flg Off

23.12.41

No.233 Squadron (Hudson)

A Hudson of No.233 Squadron was instrumental in leading the first Hurricanes during their long flight from the United Kingdom to the Middle East in June 1940, which in fact ended at Malta. This aircraft remained at Malta carrying out long-range aerial reconnaissance until it was shot down by mistake by a RN Fulmar. In December 1941, a detachment was sent from the UK to Gibraltar which was joined by the rest of the squadron in July 1942. These Hudsons flew to Malta and back, some being lost in transit.

Brown, K C

F/Sgt

11.12.41

Dick, A C

Sgt

11.12.41

Leaver, N

Sgt

11.12.41

Pinsent, J S

Sgt

11.12.41

No.235 Squadron (Beaufighter)

No.235 with Beaufighters, on loan from Coastal Command, was one unit of three that were congregated at Malta especially for the passage of the vital convoys Operations Harpoon and Vigorous of June 1942.

Cockshott, J

Sgt

10.06.42

Doncaster, J P

Plt Off RCAF

13.06.42

Hector, C W

Sgt

15.06.42

Stead, G R

Flg Off

10.06.42

Webster, W W

Sgt

13.06.42

No.242 Squadron (Hurricane)

Pilots of Nos.242 and 605 Squadrons flew Hurricanes off HMS Argus and Ark Royal to Malta on 12th November 1941. The ground parties of both squadrons went to the Far East where new squadrons were formed with the same numbers. Thus for a short while these two units appeared to be operating in two widely-separated theatres of war at the same time! On Malta, Nos.242 and 605 Squadrons had their aircraft serviced by ground crews of Nos.185 and 249 Squadrons. The squadron was based at Hal Far and later at Luqa. On 18th March 1942, both Nos.242 and 605 Squadrons were disbanded with pilots of No.242 joining No.126 Squadron.

Blanchard, M C

Plt Off RCAF

29.12.41

Harvey, R V

F/Sgt RCAF

01.03.42

Kidson, M W T

Plt Off

05.03.42

MacNamara, T B

Plt Off

24.02.42

Neale, D T

Sgt

22.01.42

Tew, J D

Plt Off

01.03.42

No.243 Squadron (Spitfire)

From North Africa, the squadron moved to Hal Far, Malta, on 11th June to fly sweeps and provide escorts for day bombers attacking enemy bases and transport. The squadron moved to Comiso on 14th July.

Blunn, G B

Flg Off

10.07.43

Connors, L J

Flg Off RAAF

10.07.43

No.248 Squadron (Beaufighter)

At the end of July 1942, sixteen of the squadron’s aircraft left the United Kingdom for Malta, all arriving safely by 10th August. After escorting the vital relief convoy Operation Pedestal to the Island and attacking enemy airfields in Sicily, the aircrew returned to the United Kingdom leaving their aircraft at Malta.

Jay, D J, DFC

Plt Off RCAF

13.08.42

No.249 Squadron (Hurricane/Spitfire)

On 21st May 1941, the squadron arrived at Ta’ Qali. It was soon in action but the fighting until the end of the year was desultory, as only the Italians were involved. However, as the year drew to a close and the Germans again showed interest in Malta, No.249 became more and more active in repelling enemy raids in addition to flying the occasional fighter-bomber raid against Comiso airfield and patrols over incoming and outgoing convoys. By February 1942, No.249 was heavily engaged in defensive action using Luqa as a dispersal base as Ta’ Qali was frequently bombed. On 7th March 1942, the first Spitfire fighters to operate outside the United Kingdom were flown off the aircraft-carrier HMS Eagle to serve with this squadron. These were flown in the major blitzes of the following months. The top-scoring Malta ace G F Beurling, gained all his Malta victories with this squadron. By the end of October the squadron had claimed more than 300 enemy aircraft destroyed. On 23rd November No.249 moved to a new airstrip at Qrendi and operated ‘Spitbombers’ on the raids on Sicily and all through late 1942 and early 1943 continued its high rate of scoring against enemy aircraft attempting to supply the troops in North Africa. The squadron also claimed the 1000th Axis aircraft to fall to Malta’s defencessince the start of the war. The squadron converted to Spitfire Mk Ixs and took part in the invasion of Sicily and Italy as part of No.322 Wing.

Berkeley-Hill, O W H

Flg Off

12.07.42

Booth, J C M

Flg Off

21.03.42

Brandt, S

Flt Lt

29.12.41

Butler, B

Plt Off RCAF

25.08.42

Carter, P

Wnt Off RCAF

16.10.42

Cavan, B M

Flg Off

20.12.41

Cormack, I M

F/Sgt

17.03.42

Dawkins, J A N

Flg Off

06.01.43

Edwards, G S

Wnt Off II RCAF

28.11.42

Fox, H J

F/Sgt RCAF (American)

14.05.42

Fox, H M

Plt Off

18.03.42

Gass, M I

F/Sgt

04.10.42

Gilbert, J C

Plt Off

08.07.42

Greenacre, H A W

LAC

19.01.42

Guerin, J J

Flg Off RAAF

21.03.42

Guest, M

Sgt

17.07.41

Hiskens, E T

Wnt Off RAAF

15.10.42

Hogarth, G A

F/Sgt RCAF

04.10.42

Hulbert, J G K

Plt Off

04.02.42

Kelly, H

Plt Off (American)

02.07.42

Kimberley, J C

Sgt

04.09.41

Lawson, R W

F/Sgt

29.12.41

Leggo, D C

Plt Off (Rhodesian)

20.03.42

Livingston, A

Sgt

18.06.41

Locke, W J

Flg Off

20.03.43

MacLeod, M G

Sqn Ldr RCAF

11.03.43

MacQueen, N C, DFC

Flt Lt

04.05.42

Matthews, R H

Flg Off

22.12.41

McDowall, H J

Sgt

04.02.42

Milburn, H A

Plt Off

09.05.42

Moren, H

Sgt

20.12.41

Munro, R H M

Plt Off (Rhodesian)

12.06.41

Murray, K N L

Plt Off RAAF

10.03.42

Nash, P A, DFC

Plt Off

17.05.42

Notley, A

Plt Off

26.02.43

Paradis, J H R

Plt Off RCAF

22.07.42

Peters, B C 

F/Sgt

15.09.42

Ramsay, C B

Plt Off RCAF

11.07.42

Roberts, J E

Sgt

15.11.42

Robinson, A D

LAC

05.02.42

Round, R P

Flg Off RNZAF

25.08.42

Sim, J

LAC

19.01.42

Small, J H A

Cpl

19.01.42

Smith, G V

Plt Off

04.09.41

Smith, J

Flg Off

08.07.42

Stuart, J R A

Plt Off

09.02.42

Tomkins, M E

F/Sgt

25.06.42

White, G

LAC

13.03.42

Wright, G

AC1

01.03.42

Yaholnitsky, W L

Wnt Off II RCAF

09.04.43

No.250 Squadron (Kittyhawk)

From North Africa, the squadron flew to Hal Far/Luqa, Malta, on 9th July, to support the landings in Sicily, moving to Pachino a few days later.

Creighton, F A

Plt Off

14.06.42

Stephens, A C

Plt Off

12.07.43

No.252 Squadron (Beaufighter)

On 1st May 1941, a detachment of fifteen anti-shipping Beaufighters of No.252 Squadron flew to Malta via Gibraltar. They were sent for the specific purpose of giving long-range protection to convoys to Malta. This lasted until 21st May when they moved to Egypt.

Beet, C H

Plt Off

18.01.42

Day, A S

AC2

15.02.42

Gardner, J V

Sgt

18.01.42

Gorman, H

AC1

15.02.42

Jackson, G A

F/Sgt RCAF

15.02.42

Keane, D F

Sgt

15.02.42

Largent, A A

Sgt

15.02.42

Lowe, J J

Flt Lt

10.05.41

Mulholland, C H

Sgt RNZAF

15.02.42

Smith, D A

Flg Off

14.12.41

Tranter, J H

Wnt Off

10.05.41

No.256 Squadron (Mosquito)

On 4th July 1943, a detachment of six Mosquito night-fighters was flown to Malta to add strength to the night force for the invasion of Sicily, Operation Husky. The highly skilled and offensive-minded team, especially during the Sicilian campaign obtained several successes. The whole squadron joined the detachment on 14th October and soon began a long series of convoy patrols by night together with the night defence of the Island.

Costley, H E

Sgt

23.07.43

Jenkins, D G L

F/Sgt

26.07.43

Martin, J

Sgt

25.07.43

Paskell, R D F

Sgt

23.07.43

Wells, W R

Flt Lt

28.12.43

No.261 Squadron (Sea Gladiator/Hurricane)

This squadron was reformed at Malta officially on 16th August 1940, by the amalgamation of Fighter Flight and twelve Hurricanes of No.418 Flight, flown off HMS Argus as part of Operation Hurry on 2nd August. For the following months it bore the brunt of the enemy raids, operating initially from both Hal Far and Luqa, moving to Ta’ Qali on 20th November when by its amalgamation with No.1430 Flight formed No.185 Squadron on 12th May 1941. No.261 Squadron had never been fully constituted or trained as a squadron but nonetheless it had achieved most creditable results with over 100 victories plus many more probables and damaged.

Ashton, D K 

Sgt

26.11.40

Auger, H F

Flg Off

23.04.41

Currie, I R

Plt Off

30.01.41

Foxton, J H T

Flg Off

22.03.41

Garland, T B

Plt Off

22.03.41

Jennings, H H

Sgt

07.05.41

Kearsey, P J

Plt Off

26.02.41

Kelsey, E N

Sgt

19.01.41

Kennett, P

Plt Off

11.04.41

Knight, D F

Plt Off

22.03.41

Langdon, C E

Plt Off RNZAF

26.02.41

MacDougal, C W

Sgt RauxAF

05.03.41

O’Donnell, R

Sgt

15.08.40

Ottey, R

Sgt

02.05.41

Southwell, J S

Flg Off

22.03.41

Spyer, R A

Sgt

22.03.41

Taylor, F F, DFC 

Flg Off

26.02.41

Thompson, P J A

Plt Off

13.05.41

Timms, W J

Sgt

11.01.41

Waghorn, P H

Sgt

11.04.41

Walsh, J J

Flg Off

02.03.41

Watson, G

Flt Lt

12.02.41

No.262 Squadron (Catalina)

March, G A

Sgt

24.03.43

No.272 Squadron (Beaufighter)

Prior to Operation Halberd, the running of a supply convoy to Malta in September 1941, the Air Ministry arranged for the Middle East’s consignment of Beaufighters to reach Malta in time for the required convoy protection. In addition to these, Coastal Command agreed to the temporary loan of other Beaufighters to bring the total number to twenty-two Beaufighters and five Blenheim fighters. On 6th November 1942, a detachment of sixteen Beaufighters of No.272 Squadron, one of the Desert Air Force’s most successful strike units, moved from Idku in Egypt, to Ta’ Qali, to add their support to Operation Torch, the Anglo-American landings in North Africa. The squadron moved to Sicily in September 1943.

Amos, F V

Sgt

14.06.42

Archer, C F

Plt Off

10.05.43

Bale, L A

Flt Lt

14.11.42

Blessing, W G

Sgt RAAF

15.06.42

Bruce, J A

Flg Off

10.12.42

Bullen, E G K

Plt Off RCAF

26.02.43

Cooper, A E

F/Sgt RAAF

14.06.42

Corbisier, R L H

Plt Off (Belgian)

15.06.42

Cossette, R A

Plt Off RCAF

08.05.43

Dawson, W J

Wnt Off RCAF

23.03.43

Deakin, W M

Sgt

23.07.41

Duquette, F A

Plt Off RCAF

08.05.43

Fletcher, R G

Sgt

08.05.43

Frazee, D W

Plt Off RCAF

08.05.43

Garrett, K J

Sgt

14.06.42

Garvey, C P

Sgt RCAF

22.02.43

Glazebrook, J K

Wnt Off RCAF

26.02.43

Grimes, R R

Plt Off RCAF

23.03.43

Hains, C G D

F/Sgt RAAF

11.12.42

Hawksley, R J

Sgt

06.06.43

Herron, T A

Flg Off RCAF

06.06.43

Hickey, D J

Flg Off RAAF

22.05.43

Houdin, G, Croix de Guerre

F/Sgt (French)

14.06.42

Jenkins, C F

Sgt

23.07.41

Johnson, A W

F/Sgt

08.05.43

Kingsley, A R

Flg Off

10.05.43

Lane, R W

F/Sgt

19.12.42

Lavin, P J

Sgt

22.05.43

Law, D N

Sgt

22.05.43

Lawton, D C

F/Sgt

11.12.42

McLeish, W C

Sgt

15.06.42

Palmer, I S H

Flg Off RAAF

06.01.43

Pien, H F M

F/Sgt (Belgian)

19.12.42

Ransom, F

F/Sgt

14.06.42

Ridgway, C C

Sgt

14.06.42

Schofield, A H M

Sgt

22.05.43

Schultz, L H

Sgt RAAF

17.03.43

Soutter, R H

F/Sgt

14.11.42

Stead, G H

Plt Off

20.01.43

Steele, J G

Sgt

08.05.43

Stephen, J W

Wnt Off II RCAF

14.02.43

Stow, E

F/Sgt

02.08.43

Tedesco, Y C

Plt Off (Belgian)

14.06.42

Thorpe, C

Sgt

22.02.43

Trery, C R

Flt Lt RCAF

02.08.43

Truby, E F R

F/Sgt RCAF

14.06.42

Turton, D M

F/Sgt

14.02.43

Wainwright, W M

Sgt

17.03.43

Williams, J R

F/Sgt

15.06.42

No. 283 Squadron (Walrus)

Osborne, T H

LAC

24.08.44

No. 601 Squadron (Spitfire)

On 20th April 1942, forty-seven Spitfire Mk VCs were flown off the aircraft-carrier USS Wasp. The aircrews were drawn from Nos.601 and 603 Squadrons and were in action on arrival at Luqa. The groundcrew, however, took the long route round the Cape to Egypt. In the few months the Squadron served on the Island it saw much action and in June it moved on to Egypt. There it met up with its groundcrew and prepared for its desert fighting, where it formed part of No.244 Wing, returning to Malta a year later to cover the invasion of Sicily, moving there on 14th July.

Briggs, G M

Plt Off RAAF

10.05.42

Caldwell, W A

Plt Off RNZAF

25.05.42

Cripps, W E

Plt Off RCAF

26.04.42

Drury, G I

LAC

31.03.43

Graysmark, C E

Sgt

12.05.42

Howard, F S

Sgt

20.05.42

McConnell, J N

Sgt RNZAF

15.06.42

Pawson, K W

Plt Off

25.04.42

Relton, F K G

Wnt Off

13.06.42

Seaman, W, AFC

Flg Off

06.07.43

Taylor, J S, DFC

Sqn Ldr

12.07.43

No.603 Squadron (Spitfire)

On 20th April 1942, forty-seven Spitfire Mk VCs were flown off the aircraft-carrier USS Wasp. The aircrews were drawn from Nos.601 and 603 Squadrons. Based at Ta’ Qali, the unit saw a great deal of combat over Malta, however, by August it was disbanded and its remaining aircraft and pilots became the nucleus for a reformed No.229 Squadron.

Barlow, L G

Flg Off

08.06.42

Buckstone, J W

Flt Lt

09.05.42

Hurst, J, DFC

Plt Off

02.07.42

King, N S

Flg Off

08.07.42

Levy-Despas, G A, Legion d’Honneur, Croix de Guerre

Flg Off RCAF

09.07.42

Mitchell, H R

Plt Off RNZAF

12.05.42

Murray, G

Plt Off RCAF

22.04.42

No.605 Squadron (Hurricane)

On 12th November 1941, Nos.242 and No.605 Squadrons flew off HMS Argus and Ark Royal to Malta. The ground parties of both squadrons went to the Far East, where new squadrons were formed with the same numbers. Thus for a short while these two units appeared to be operating in two widely separated theatres of war at the same time! On Malta Nos.242 and 605 Squadrons had their aircraft serviced by groundcrews of Nos.185 and 249 Squadrons. The squadron was based at Hal Far and later at Luqa flying Hurricanes in defence of the Island until it was disbanded at Ta’ Qali on 18th March 1942, its pilots joining No.185 Squadron.

Allen, G

Flt Lt

12.02.42

Lowe, P W

Plt Off

15.02.42

No. 614 Squadron (Halifax)

Mutton, D I

F/Sgt

30.04.45

Robinson, B C

Flg Off RNZAF

30.04.45

No. 683 Squadron (Spitfire)

On 6th February 1943, the PRU Spitfire flight of No.69 Squadron was formed into No.683 Squadron equipped entirely with Spitfire PR Mk Ivs. During March the squadron had been joined by a detachment of F-4 Lightnings from the 3rd Photographic Reconnaissance Group of the USAAF. During May, the squadron received some Mosquitos and later on it helped cover the invasion of Sicily as part of No.244 Wing, moving to Italy in December 1943.

Burnet, J B

Flt Lt RNZAF

02.10.43

Lewis, W S D

F/Sgt

02.09.43

Peacock, C R

Wnt Off RCAF

09.03.43

No.1435 Squadron (Spitfire)

During 1941, a Hurricane flight was formed on Malta for night-fighting duties. This was designated No.1435 Flight, it being standard practice to number special flights in the 1400 series. In June 1942, a detachment of Beaufighters from No.89 Squadron arrived at Malta to take over the night defence. Thus No.1435 Flight re-equipped with Spitfires as a day fighter unit, retaining its flight number. As its ranks expanded it became known as a squadron as from 2nd August 1942. This was eventually approved by the Air Ministry and was retained throughout the war, this being the only operational RAF squadron with a four-figure number. The squadron, during late 1942, was one of five battle hardened squadrons on Malta at the time. They were able, in company of other units, to aid in the disruption of communications and supplies between Sicily and North Africa. The squadron took part in the invasion of Sicily as part of No.324 Wing and moved there at the end of October and to Italy later on.

Benjamin, S H

F/Sgt

12.07.43

Bray, G P

Plt Off RCAF

29.06.43

Buntine, R A

F/Sgt RAAF

13.08.42

Harrison, J M

F/Sgt

18.12.42

Hart, W

Sgt

18.03.43

Hubbard, D F

Sgt

28.07.42

Ilsley, K R

F/Sgt

09.03.43

Kelly, C L

Sgt RNZAF

08.08.42

Martin, R B

Flg Off

11.05.43

McDougall, L J

Plt Off RCAF

03.03.43

Pollock, D P

Plt Off

29.08.42

Roe, R J

Sgt RNZAF

14.10.42

Rowland, M J

Flt Lt RNZAF

10.07.43

Stevenson, R A

F/Sgt

12.10.42

Williams, W B K

F/Sgt RAAF

14.10.42

Wilson, W R

F/Sgt

16.10.42

Wood, C L

Sgt RNZAF

30.07.42

Wood, J E

Plt Off

27.04.42

Wright, R A

Plt Off

01.11.42

MALTA NIGHT FIGHTER UNIT (Hurricane)

During 1941, night bombing attacks were fairly frequent but were made as a rule by only a few aircraft coming over at intervals and dropping their bombs at random. They were a nuisance but did little damage. In August, a Malta Night Fighter Unit was formed consisting of twelve Hurricane Mk Iis, eight of which were armed with four cannon and the remainder with twelve machine-guns. The pilots flew only at night and worked closely with the searchlights. There was soon a noticeable decline in the number of night raids.

Barnwell, D U, DFC

Plt Off

14.10.41

Mackie, A S

Plt Off

29.01.42

MALTA WELLINGTON FLIGHT

On 30th October 1940, twelve Wellington crews drawn from Nos.38, 75, 115 and 149 Squadrons from the United Kingdom were detailed to fly their bombers to Luqa. Their mission was to raid oil tanks in Naples harbour. The mission was a success, however, on the second operational trip, during the night of 3rd November, the second and fourth bombers crashed moments after take-off. The first fell in open countryside, all crew but one escaping. Sgt R M Lewin received the George Cross for extricating the second pilot from the burning aircraft. The second pilot died later (see Appendix A). The second crash was on Qormi village where all crew, but one, were killed. Maltese Police Constable Carmel Camilleri rescued Sgt Smith from the bottom of a quarry; this earned him a George Medal. Sadly, Smith died shortly after. Further raids were made on targets in Sicily, southern Italy, Yugoslavia and Cyrenaica as well as participating in the successful attack on the Italian fleet in Taranto harbour by dropping flares.

Allen, D R

Plt Off

04.11.40

Forrester, P E

Sgt

04.11.40

Rawlings, D P

Sgt

04.11.40

Smith, A T

Sgt

04.11.40

Wood, T R

Sgt

04.11.40

SPECIAL DUTIES FLIGHT (Wellington)

During September 1941, No.221 Squadron in the United Kingdom was asked to supply three crews to be sent to Malta as an autonomous unit for Special Duties. The crews flew new ASV Wellington Mk VIIIs from St Eval via Gibraltar to Malta by night so as to avoid enemy fighters. At Malta their task was to find enemy surface shipping. All enemy supplies for the Italian-German North African armies were shipped through two ports, Benghazi and Tripoli. These supplies either came through the Straits of Messina or around the west tip of Sicily. Either way the enemy supply-ships had to pass within flying range of Malta. As these ships used to be attacked in daylight by Malta-based Blenheims and Marylands, they then changed tactics and passed by Malta at night; nevertheless they were intercepted by ASV Wellingtons and attacked. During January 1943, the SDF was strengthened further by a number of Wellingtons from the United Kingdom and in conjunction with No.69 Squadron continued to form the reconnaissance element at Malta during that period.

Gulliver, A J

Wnt Off

23.12.41

Hunt, G H

Sgt

23.12.41

Kingston, D M

Sgt

23.12.41

Reason, W D

Sgt

23.12.41

Reid, A J

Sgt

23.12.41

Woolley, L J

F/Sgt

23.12.41

COMMONWEALTH SQUADRONS

No.3 (RAAF) Squadron (Kittyhawk)

The squadron operated Kittyhawks from Ta’ Qali, between 4th and 18th July 1943, in preparation for the invasion of Sicily. No.3 Squadron formed part of No.239 Wing.

Enright, P E

LAC RAAF

25.07.43

Fleming, W

Cpl RAAF

21.07.43

No.458 (RAAF) Squadron (Wellington)

On 7th January 1943 a detachment of three Wellingtons from No.458 Squadron was the first to reach Luqa and there joined No.69 Squadron. On 6th February a further eighteen Wellingtons moved to Luqa and No.458 became established in its own name absorbing the original elements of No.69 Squadron Special Duties Flight. During January and February, Wellingtons flew several sorties mostly around the northern and western shores of Sicily in search of enemy ships. There were several losses and on 3rd March it was necessary to transfer sixteen aircrew members from No.38 Squadron in order to maintain operational strength. Very little success was achieved but the true value of this constant pressure by Wellingtons was that it forced the enemy to discontinue large convoys from Naples and to attempt a daylight passage to Tunis from Palermo and Trapani under cover of heavy naval and air escort. In June the squadron was based in North Africa.

Armour, R D

F/Sgt RAAF

29.04.43

Banks, G J

Wnt Off II RCAF

29.04.43

Bates, K T

Sgt

27.04.43

Batton, I W

LAC RAAF

06.11.42

Brighurst, A W

Sgt

28.04.43

Brown, E A 

Sgt

13.02.43

Brown, P E E

Wnt Off II RCAF

13.02.43

Cameron, G A D

Sgt RCAF

30.04.43

Clark, L W

Wnt Off II RCAF

25.02.43

Gleason, L H

Plt Off RCAF

13.02.43

Grasley, J R

Wnt Off II RCAF

29.04.43

Hudson, R W J

Plt Off RCAF

27.04.43

Hunter, J R

Sgt

27.04.43

Huntley, A J

F/Sgt RAAF

19.04.44

Jenkins, F S

Wnt Off II RCAF

25.02.43

Keith, A L

F/Sgt RCAF

28.04.43

Kempton, M M

Flg Off RCAF

13.02.43

King, P

Wnt Off II RCAF

25.02.43

Kirk, J F

Wnt Off II RCAF

25.02.43

Lees, W S

Sgt

27.04.43

Lyle, G

Sgt

27.04.43

Markey, J R

Flg Off RAAF

23.01.44

McLeod, A F W

Wnt Off II RCAF

25.02.43

McMillan, H R

Flg Off RAAF

19.04.44

Musto, T E

Sgt

27.04.43

Paroissien, J C

Plt Off RAAF

28.04.43

Prebble, I D

Flg Off RNZAF

28.04.43

Rogers, T R

F/Sgt RAAF

23.01.44

Sheffield, R A P

Wnt Off II RCAF

25.02.43

Shipard, J C

F/Sgt RAAF

23.01.44

Stanley, H E 

Sgt RCAF

13.02.43

Stelter, N A

Wnt Off II RCAF

29.04.43

Sutherland, A M

F/Sgt

28.04.43

Taylor, J L

Flt Lt

29.04.43

Taylor, L C

F/Sgt RAAF

23.01.44

Wagstaffe, J M

Wnt Off

19.04.44

Westhan, R M

Wnt Off II RCAF

29.04.43

Williamson, R H

F/Sgt

19.04.44

No.459 (RAAF) Squadron (Hudson)

Blackstock, W D

Flg Off RAAF

15.06.42

Darr, N C

F/Sgt RAAF

15.06.42

Durrell, A H

Flg Off RAAF

15.06.42

Powell, R D

F/Sgt RAAF

15.06.42

No.1 (SAAF) Squadron

Rossouw, A deL

Lt SAAF

25.06.43

No.12 (SAAF) Squadron (Boston)

After the Axis surrender in Tunisia the squadron moved to Hal Far by the end of July 1943 as part of No.3 SAAF Wing. From Malta the squadron flew light bomber sorties with its Bostons to support Operation Husky – the Allied landings – during the Sicilian campaign.

Davids, M H

Lt SAAF

01.08.43

Goulding, T T

Lt SAAF

23.07.43

Jonker, M J

F/Sgt

06.08.43

Lehman, C W

F/Sgt

06.08.43

Trembath, W M

Lt

06.08.43

van Zyl, L A 

Lt SAAF

06.08.43

No.21 (SAAF) Squadron (Baltimore)

In July 1943 the squadron moved from North Africa to Hal Far to support the Allied invasion of Sicily – Operation Husky – as part of No.3 SAAF Wing, from where it flew light bomber sorties. The maintenance echelon remained in Africa until it moved to Sicily to join its aircraft there.

Chapman, R E

Flg Off RNZAF

09.08.43

Childe, F R 

F/Sgt SAAF

23.07.43

Christian, D

F/Sgt

09.08.43

Handley, S J

Lt SAAF

18.08.43

Roberts, V P 

F/Sgt SAAF

18.08.43

Shepperson, K O 

F/Sgt SAAF

18.08.43

Simpson, R A E W 

Lt SAAF

18.08.43

Wright, J

Sgt

09.08.43

No.24 (SAAF) Squadron (Boston)

In July 1943, the squadron flew from North Africa to Hal Far to support the Allied invasion of Sicily – Operation Husky – as part of No.3 SAAF Wing, from where it flew light bomber sorties.

Isenberg, M I

Lt SAAF

01.08.43

No.40 (SAAF) Squadron (Spitfire)

The ground echelon of the squadron arrived at Luqa on 17th June 1943, whilst its Spitfires flew in six days later to provide tactical reconnaissance support to the Allied Forces which landed in Sicily in July in Operation Husky.

Le Roux, C G, DFC

Capt SAAF

10.07.43

Robinson, K

Lt SAAF

12.07.43

AIRCREW (RAF & COMMONWEALTH) who lost their lives in transit via Malta and others from miscellaneous or unidentified units.

Abela, A

AC1

02.10.43

Allen, K R

Sgt

07.04.41

Argent, A C

Plt Off

17.01.42

Askin, R W

Sgt RNZAF

12.07.41

Atherton, W S C

Sgt RAAF

09.01.42

Atkinson, J C

F/Sgt

24.07.42

Bain, C H

Sgt RNZAF

30.11.40

Barrett, E J

Sgt

17.01.42

Bearcroft, E M F

F/Sgt

17.01.42

Beattie, E B

Sgt

16.06.41

Beaumont, T F

F/Sgt

03.06.42

Bidgood, E G

Flg Off

17.11.40

Bolton, J R

Sgt

16.06.41

Boret, R J

Plt Off

17.11.40

Bottomley, S R

Sgt

12.12.41

Boulton, M J F

Sgt

12.12.41

Bradley, N

Sgt

02.11.41

Brunyee, T

Sgt

12.12.41

Buckbarrow, M F C

Plt Off

24.12.40

Burton, L G

Plt Off

24.12.40

Butler, L B

Sgt

16.06.41

Cameron, D

Plt Off RCAF

16.06.41

Campbell, L D

Sgt

27.08.40

Cannon, J W

AC1

21.06.43

Cassar, C

AC2

11.09.44

Clarke, R W

Flg Off

17.11.40

Clay, L F

Sgt

12.07.41

Cliffe, J F C

LAC (HMS Ark Royal)

27.09.41

Collins, R

F/Sgt

17.01.42

Collinson, C R

Sgt

17.01.42

Cook, L E 

Plt Off

17.01.42

Corry, D P

Flg Off

10.09.44

Culbert, W J

Sgt

26.06.42

Cunnington, W G

Sgt

17.11.40

Daddo-Langlois, W R

Flt Lt

10.07.43

Day, F S

Plt Off

24.07.42

DeMarco, J J

Wnt Off II RCAF

21.11.42

Drake, F E

Sgt

16.06.41

Draper, K R

Sgt

30.10.40

Durkan, N J

Sgt

03.08.42

Eaton, W A

Sgt

15.11.41

Elliot, W E

Sgt

30.10.40

Evans, L

Sgt

21.07.42

Evenett, G D

Sgt

17.01.42

Fahmy, E M C

Sgt

21.02.42

Fairlamb, R W

Sgt

07.04.41

Finlay, W R

F/Sgt RCAF

13.09.41

Fisher, E

Sgt

30.10.40

Fleming, W J A

Sgt

17.08.42

Fry, A J N

Sgt

17.01.42

Garrett, A W

Sgt RAAF

30.03.42

Glasgow, G

F/Sgt

03.08.42

Goodman, R J A

LAC

21.06.43

Grosvenor, F R

Sgt

20.06.42

Hadley, H C

Sgt

21.02.42

Hall, E G T

Sgt

09.01.42

Hardy, K L

Sgt RCAF

09.04.42

Hare, M T

Sgt

30.06.41

Harvey, E L

Sgt

12.12.41

Hawkins, J D

Sgt

05.04.42

Heatherington, J G

Plt Off

26.12.41

Herring, D

Flg Off

27.01.44

Hole, R A D

AC2

27.12.43

Horrox, J M

Plt Off

16.11.40

Horton, P W

Flg Off

16.11.40

Jackson, E P

Sgt

12.12.41

Jaggs, W V

Sgt

30.10.40

Janney,H

Sgt RAAF

30.03.42

Jeffries, W H

Sgt

02.11.41

Johnson, C E

Sgt RAAF

30.03.42

Keam, M L J, DSM

F/Sgt (No.730 Squadron FAA)

08.11.41

Kimberley, G T

Plt Off RNZAF

07.04.41

Lakin, C J

LAC

29.08.43

Lunan, H G

Sgt

17.01.42

Macpherson, H D K

F/Sgt RCAF

03.06.42

Macpherson, R

Sgt 

14.06.41

Main, E A

Sgt

02.11.41

Matthews, S

Sgt

26.06.42

McCracken, R C

Sgt

07.04.41

McKee, H P

Plt Off RCAF

05.04.42

Meddings, F N

Sgt

24.12.40

Menary, J H

Flg Off

03.06.42

Moloney, T G

Flg Off RAAF

09.01.42

Monk, P F

Sgt

21.02.42

Monro, J

AC1

17.01.42

Morris, A

Sgt

09.01.42

Nelson, G

F/Sgt

03.08.42

Nuttall, E

LAC

30.06.43

Oakley, E G

Sgt

21.02.42

Parris, S J

AC1

21.05.43

Passmore, J B S

Sgt

30.06.42

Pate, A J R, DFC

Plt Off

30.10.40

Patterson, J M M

Flg Off RAAF

09.01.42

Pollock, T E

Sgt RAAF

30.03.42

Pooley, C H

Sgt

17.12.42

Prout, D G

LAC

02.09.43

Raggenbass, J

Sgt

30.11.40

Ramsay, W J Q

Sgt

12.07.41

Reed, C J W E

Sgt RAAF

30.03.42

Riordan, K D

Sgt RAAF

30.03.42

Rossbottom, H

Sgt

03.08.42

Rouleau, D F

Plt Off RCAF

03.06.42

Rounsefell, J V

F/Sgt RCAF

09.05.42

Rowley, R

Sgt

21.02.42

Salter, A J

LAC

31.10.43

Sanders, C R

Sgt

16.06.41

Sherrington, R D

Sgt RCAF

09.05.42

Shiner, J M

Sgt RAAF

30.03.42

Smith, D

Sgt

03.08.42

Smith, E P

Plt Off RNZAF

05.04.42

Smith, J G

Sgt RCAF

02.11.41

Taylor, C R

Sgt

24.07.42

Taylor, J R

LAC

30.06.43

Thomas, D D P

Sgt

12.07.41

Thomas, K L

Sgt

05.04.42

Thomson, J

Sgt

27.08.40

Thorpe, R

AC1

15.09.43

Townsend, E O

Sgt

12.07.41

Turner, W H, MBE

Flt Lt

09.11.44

Twelvetrees, J O

Sgt

24.07.42

Urwin, J

Sgt

03.08.42

Valiquet, C N

Wnt Off I RCAF

09.05.42

Wade, R

Sgt

02.11.41

Walker, J R

Flg Off

17.11.40

Watts, W A

Sgt RNZAF

07.04.41

Williams, H L

Sgt

07.04.41

Williamson, G E

Sgt

02.11.41

Worsfield, A J

Sgt

12.07.41

Worwood, J R

Sgt RAAF

21.02.42

No.511 Squadron – On 1st February 1945, Avro York EW617, from the United Kingdom, was flying with passengers on board to attend the Crimea Conference. The transport aircraft developed some fault and was forced to ditch in the sea very close to Lampedusa, some 90 miles south-west of Malta. The authorities at Malta had hoped that the aircraft would float and all would be saved but in actual fact the aircraft tore itself against a reef and fifteen of those on board lost their life. By a coincidence the American ship USS Quincy, having on board President Roosevelt, saw that there was an accident and one of the escorting destroyers went close by and lifted the bodies and brought them to Malta for burial.

Mr H J Battley, Special Branch, Scotland Yard, attached to Foreign Office, Eden’s personal detective

Mr J Chaplin, Second Secretary, Foreign Office

Capt A K Charlesworth, MC, 3rd Carabiniers (Prince of Wales Dragoon Guards), RAC

Mr A R Dew, MVO, First Secretary, Foreign Office

Capt W H Finch, MBE, General List

Capt R MacD Guthrie, King’s Messenger

Lt Col I S H Hooper, MiD, The West Yorkshire Regt

Grp Capt P S Jackson-Taylor

Mr P N Loxley, First Secretary, Foreign Office

Lt Col W G Newey, DSO, TD (Royal Artillery)

Miss P M Sullivan

Flg Off A Appleby (No.511 Sqn)

LAC J Chicken (No.511 Sqn)

F/Sgt A C J Walker, (Flight Engineer, No.511 Sqn)

Wnt Off W Wright (No.511 Sqn)

No.138 Squadron – Halifax DT542 from the Middle East, staging through Malta to England on 17th December 1942, crashed on take-off killing all on board. The all Polish crew had passengers on board; all are buried in Malta:

Major (Army) A A Bathurst, MP, DSO, MC, TD (Lord Apsley)

LAC C D Browne

LAC R Clegg

Flg Off K L Dobromirski (Polish)

Flt Lt P Earle

Cpl D S Hounslow

Flg Off Z Idzikowski (Polish)

AC1 S E Kelly

Sgt A E Kleniewski (Polish)

Major (Army) A D C Millar

Flg Off S Pankiewicz (Polish)

Sgt D Spibey

Flt Lt L A Vaughan, DSO, DFC

Sgt A C Watt

Sqn Ldr J H Wedgwood, DFC

Sgt R Wysocki (Polish)

F/Sgt O F Zielinski (Polish)

SERVICE PERSONNEL (& FAMILY) LOST AT THE END OF THEIR TOUR AT MALTA

Liberator AL516 of No.511 Squadron crashed whilst attempting to land at Gibraltar on the night 31st October/1st November 1942. Fourteen were killed. The six Service personnel are:

Sgt R H Davey (ex No.126 Squadron)

Flt Lt E H Glazebrook, RCAF, DFC (ex Nos.603/229 Squadrons)

Flt Lt E L Hetherington, DFC (ex No.249 Squadron)

Wnt Off C E Mutch, RCAF (ex No.249 Squadron)

Sgt D W J Spencer (Groundcrew, ex AHQ Malta)

Plt Off J W Williams, RCAF, DFC (ex No.249 Squadron)

The eight civilian passengers are:

Mr & Mrs E J Rowe

Mrs E P Sheldon

Mrs M B Hucklebridge

Mrs I J Aston & child (family of FAA Officer)

Mrs E P Chase & child

HMS Welshman, whilst on its way to Alexandria on 1st February 1943, was torpedoed and sank with a heavy loss of life. Seven Service personnel taking passage lost are:

LAC R D Bond

AC2 WGC Brown

Cpl K F Davies

Cpl W R Essex

LAC G B Lamb

Sgt W Smith

Sgt R M Stevenson

APPENDIX A

Awards for Acts of Gallantry to RAF Service Personnel

George Cross 

Sgt R M LEWIN was the pilot of a RAF Wellington bomber that took off for a night raid on a military objective in Italy. Shortly after the aircraft became airborne, the pilot discovered that he was losing height and warned his crew via intercom to hold tight as he was going to attempt a forced landing. The aircraft crashed into a hillside and immediately burst into flames. Lewin got himself out of the machine and saw that three of his crew were climbing out of the escape hatch. He then shouted to them to run for their lives as the bombs were to go off any minute. He then heard his second pilot shout for help. Lewin then ran round the blazing wing in which full petrol tanks were burning and crept under it to reach his colleague who was badly injured. He half carried and half dragged him to a hole in the ground about forty yards away from the burning aircraft and threw himself on top of his injured colleague just as the bombs exploded. Sgt Lewin carried out this brave action although suffering from a cracked kneecap and severe contusions on face and legs. As captain of his aircraft, no one knew better than he that the explosions of the petrol tanks and bombs were inevitable, it was an exhibition of gallantry of the highest order.

George Cross (Posthumous Award)

LAC A M Osborne was fearless in fire-fighting and rescue operations in which he saved many pilots and others from certain death. He was killed whilst leading a party to extinguish the flames in a burning aircraft. On Aircraftsman Osborne, the Air Officer Commanding RAF Mediterranean later said, that he was one of the bravest men it had been his privilege to meet.

George Medal

Flt Lt H B H Dickinson displayed outstanding courage, initiative and devotion to duty. When intense and almost continuous enemy air attacks were commenced against Malta he volunteered for special duties and performed dangerous work while the attacks were in progress. Flt Lt Dickinson displayed remarkable powers of leadership and indomitable courage. The utmost confidence had been placed in his sound judgement and initiative in the duties that entailed great risk.

a.W/O D Bishop who was employed on armament duties in Malta, displayed exceptional courage and devotion to duty throughout a long and trying period. He rendered invaluable service, showing absolute disregard for his own safety. His conduct had been of the greatest benefit to his superior officer, whose services had been fully taxed during the constant enemy raids.

LAC E J Drury saved two bomber aircraft during an air attack on an aerodrome in Malta. Several aircraft were hit and set on fire but with complete disregard for his own safety and with bombs bursting all round him, he started up a bomber and taxied it to a place of safety. To do this he had to taxi between two aircraft which had been hit and were enveloped in flames. He then returned and carried out the same task with another bomber whose wing was already on fire. LAC Drury’s courage was tremendous and by his prompt action and exemplary conduct in the face of almost certain death he saved two aircraft which would otherwise have been destroyed.

Wg Cdr R Hill, Flt Lt E L Williams, LAC C J Boarman and LAC H Sumray gained their awards when two bombers, loaded with bombs and mines collided. W/Cdr Hill was Station Medical Officer and Flt Lt Williams Station Signal Officer. All four without hesitation went out to the scene of the accident. Bombs and mines went off and the enemy took advantage of the flames to start to bomb. Between them they managed to save several members of the crew and get them in an ambulance to safety. Without their prompt and courageous action all the members of the crews would probably have lost their lives.

Sgt H Clawson and LAC E M Mitchson were duty fire crew when one of the British fighters crash-landed in the middle of a heavy raid on an aerodrome and burst into flames. To reach the aircraft the fire crew had to cross the aerodrome whilst enemy aircraft were diving to attack and with bombs falling across their path. Enemy fighters were also attacking the aircraft but the fire crew drove unhesitatingly across the aerodrome and rescued the pilot. On many other occasions they had shown the greatest bravery.

APPENDIX B

The Airfields 

LUQA, originally a grass landing field, in 1938 had four paved runways under construction in order to overcome the bad weather restrictions of the other two airfields. This made Luqa modern by the standards of the day and a trial landing was made by Flt Lt George Burges in June 1939. When completed, Luqa was also used as Malta’s civilian airport, in fact the Italian airline Ala Littoria moved its operations there from Ta’ Qali which was subject to waterlogging. In preparation for war, Luqa became a RAF Station on 1st April 1940 and was to become the principal RAF Station on Malta. The three main runways were further extended during 1940 and 1941 and tarmaced in order to be able to handle the bombers; taxi-tracks, extensive dispersal areas and aircraft pens were also provided. On 19th September 1940 No.431 (General Reconnaissance) Flight, later to become No.69 Squadron, was the first operating unit at Luqa, this was followed by the arrival of Wellingtons on 30th October, which became No.148 Squadron on 1st December. Luqa was subjected to very heavy bombing in wartime, particularly in March and April 1941 and March and April 1942. A special visitor on 20th June 1943 was King George VI, when he visited Luqa aerodrome where he was received by Air Vice-Marshal Sir Keith Park, Air Officer Commanding, Malta and Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder, Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief Mediterranean Air Command. Sir Keith Park received the accolade of knighthood from the King that same day.

HAL FAR, a grass airfield was the first to be built on Malta. Its origins stemmed from the need for an airfield on the Island at which to disembark the Fleet Air Arm carrier-based wheel-fitted aircraft, which were replacing floatplanes at this time. Initially attached to the Malta Naval Air Station at Kalafrana, the airfield was opened by the Governor and C-in-C, Field Marshal Lord Plumer, on 16th January, 1923; the first official flight of Service aircraft taking place on 19th February, 1924. As on 19th March 1929, Hal Far was upgraded to become a RAF Station in its own right. The first Station Commander, Wing Commander C W Nutting OBE DSC, did not, however, arrive from the UK until 10th May. The airfield’s stony surface was liable to become waterlogged during wet weather and later four flight paths were made available in 1940 and the following two years saw extensions to all flight paths especially to one in particular to be suitable for use by the bombers. A Station Fighter Flight consisting of four Sea-Gladiators was set-up shortly before the outbreak of war. Hal Far was to experience heavy bombing resulting in much damage to the station’s buildings and barracks.

TA’ QALI airfield had been laid down on the bed of an ancient lake. In pre-war times it had been used by civil airlines, its main customer being the Italian Ala Littoria. Its grassy surface, like Hal Far, deteriorated quickly in bad weather whilst in summer it turned to baked earth. By the time Italy entered hostilities in June 1940 obstructions were positioned around the airfield to prevent airborne landings. On 30th October instructions were received at Hal Far from HQ Mediterranean Command for Wing Commander J R O’Sullivan to proceed to the airport with a small HQ staff, with the task of forming a one-squadron fighter station there. On 8th November 1940 the airport became RAF Station Ta’ Qali, with No.261 Squadron moving in from Luqa on 20th November. Wing Commander J Warfield took over as Station Commander on 16th May 1941. A few days later No.249 Squadron arrived from the UK to replace No.261. No.249 Squadron was to become the top-scoring squadron on Malta, claiming also the 1000th enemy aircraft to fall to the Malta defences. Ta’ Qali airfield was subjected to heavy bombing during the course of the war.

SAFI was a dispersal strip between Luqa and Hal Far, with long taxi-ways and numerous aircraft pens. These pens were to prove vital for to the survival of the aircraft in the severe bombing of 1942. By January 1941 the construction of a paved runway had started. This was completed in February 1943 and was followed by a second runway, work on which commenced on 1st March. RAF Safi was formed on 20th March 1943 with Wing Commander Innes B Westmacott as Station Commander. Prior to the invasion of Sicily a number of VIP’s visited the airfield; these included General Montgomery on 4th July, Field Marshal Alexander on 7th July and General Eisenhower on 11th July. Later, Luftwaffe Bf109G-2, Black 13 of 2/JG.27 captured in Sicily and a Macchi C.202 were later brought to Safi as trophies.

QRENDI Construction work on the airfield was begun in 1940. This consisted of two tarmaced runways which were completed in 1942. The aerodrome was opened on 10th November by Air Vice-Marshal Park who ‘beat up’ the aerodrome in his personal Hurricane, coded OK2. The first squadron to move there was No.249 from Ta’ Qali, followed by No.229 Squadron in December. January 1943 saw the arrival of No.185 Squadron from Hal Far. At this time offensive sweeps over Sicily were the order of the day. These sweeps were kept up until the invasion of Sicily in July, after which the usefulness of the airfield diminished.

XEWKIJA airfield was constructed by the US Army Corps of Engineers in June 1943. The need for this aerodrome was in preparation for Operation ‘Husky’, the invasion of Sicily. The Allied Commanders anticipated that there was need for further Spitfire reinforcements to support General Patton’s Seventh Army before, during and after the initial stages of the invasion. As it was considered that the aerodromes on Malta would not be able to accommodate all the aircraft required for that undertaking the airfield was sited on the sister island of Gozo. Xewkija’s assigned unit was the USAAF 31st Fighter Group which comprised the 307th, 308th and 309th Fighter Squadrons. The airfield, consisting of two strips which had been laid in the incredibly short time of ten days, had a very short life and soon after the invasion forces had left the island, the land reverted to its former owners, the local farmers. One sad casualty was the historic Gourgion fortified house.

KALAFRANA SEAPLANE BASE Following a survey by the Admiralty to find a suitable site for a ‘seaplane shed’ work was authorised to start at the end of January 1916 at Kalafrana, within Marsaxlokk Bay. The base opened in July 1916. At the end of July five Curtiss H4 Small America flyingboats were flown out from Felixstowe to patrol the approaches to Malta and report the presence of enemy submarines. On 1st April 1918 Kalafrana became a RAF Seaplane base under the command of Colonel C J R Randall. Following a reorganisation of the RAF in Malta, Kalafrana became a self-accounting unit on 1st August 1923 and throughout the 1930s the Station, known at this stage as RAF Base Kalafrana, handled many visiting seaplanes and flyingboats. The base received its first bombs of the war in June 1940. The RAF Air Sea Rescue Unit and the Marine Craft Section operated their High Speed Launches and Seaplane Tenders from this base saving the lives of many downed aircrew.

APPENDIX C

Fighter Reinforcements

By the time World War II broke out on Sunday, 3rd September, 1939, it had already been realised that fighter aircraft would have played a vital role in defence of the Island. It was reckoned that at least four fighter squadrons would have been required for the aerial defence of Malta. Yet not a single fighter had reached the Island by the time Italy declared war against Britain and France on 10th June, 1940.

The RAF had to pay quite a high price in wartime for this lack of foresight. In March 1940 following prolonged negotiations, Air Commodore Maynard, AOC Malta, had been authorised to take over six Fleet Air Arm Sea-Gladiator biplanes which were crated and stored at the FAA depot at Kalafrana. They had been left behind by HMS Glorious when she left the Mediterranean Station to take part in the Norwegian Campaign

A few fighters were flown to Malta from Cyrenaica when circumstances permitted but until October 1942 most of the fighters were flown-off aircraft-carriers; these carriers left from Gibraltar escorted by Force Hand flew-off the fighters south of the Balearics.

On 1st July 1940 Admiral Cunningham asked London to send more fighters to Malta to enable him to use the Island for the refuelling of his destroyers. In compliance with this request the first delivery of Hurricanes - Operation Hurry - was carried out in August 1940.

It was later decided to furnish Malta with a strong fighter defence by April 1941. In pursuance with this decision a delivery was made in November 1940; code-named Operation White, this turned into a disaster as the Hurricanes were flown-off at their extreme range and eight out of twelve aircraft ran out of fuel! The next batch of Hurricanes was delivered as cargo by the steamer Essex in January 1941 taking advantage of the British occupation of Cyrenaica, from where the Hurricanes were flown. When the Axis reoccupied Cyrenaica delivery of Hurricanes to Malta reverted to the aircraft-carrier method and 34 were sent safely in two deliveries carried-out during April 1941, in Operations Winch and Dunlop. But a contemporary delivery of 21 crated Hurricanes by the blockade-runner Parracombe failed as the steamer hit a mine off Cape Bon on 2nd May 1941, and sank.

The success achieved by the use of aircraft-carriers induced the authorities to ferry Hurricanes to Egypt by carriers via Malta and nearly 150 aircraft were delivered in three Operations named Splice, Rocket and Tracer which were carried out in late May and early June. Then followed Operation Railway, which delivered more Hurricanes in late June in two phases - Railway I and Railway II. A few fighters from these five deliveries were retained at Malta but most of them flew on to Egypt.

As rapid Hurricane reinforcements were required for the desert offensive (Crusader) of autumn 1941, another delivery via Malta was carried out during September; this was divided in two phases, Operations Status I and II. A follow-up delivery code-named Perpetual was carried-out in November; this was again divided in two phases, Perpetual I and II. The former was carried out in mid-November but as Ark Royal was torpedoed and sunk during this operation, the latter had to be cancelled.

When the Luftwaffe returned to Sicily in January 1942 the Hurricanes were outclassed by the Bf109Fs and it was finally decided to send the superior Spitfire fighters to Malta. The first attempt had to be aborted owing to defects in the fuel system of the Spitfires. Eagle made three deliveries during March: Operations Spotter, Picket I and Picket II. Eagle then developed steering defects and the next delivery, Operation Calendar, was carried out in April by the American aircraft-carrier Wasp. The Luftwaffe destroyed these Spitfires on the ground on their arrival, hence another delivery was most urgently required but there had to be enough aircraft to overcome the massive number of German raiders.

In Operation Bowery the US carrier Wasp, in conjunction with Eagle, delivered 59 Spitfires on 9th May 1942. Special measures were taken to refuel and rearm these Spitfires as rapidly as possible and most were ready for action within minutes of landing. Thus, when the Luftwaffe came to destroy them on the ground, to its utter surprise found most of them already airborne. A crucial air-battle ensued in the skies over Malta the following day; the Malta defences decisively won this and indeed 10th May 1942 is considered to be the turning point of the air-battle of Malta. To maintain air supremacy over Malta Britain continued to reinforce the Island with Spitfires. Eagle made five other delivery operations between May and July, respectively code-named L B, Style, Salient, Pinpoint and Insect.

In mid-August, to ensure air superiority during the unloading of convoy Pedestal, the carrier Furious made two more deliveries, Bellows and Baritone. Finally, apprehensive that the intensification of German air raids in early October 1942 was the prelude of another massive blitz, Furious delivered a further batch of Spitfires on 29th October in Operation Train. Following the heavy losses sustained by the Axis Forces in the October Blitz, there was no further need for more carrier-borne reinforcement Spitfires.

Fighters to Malta from aircraft-carriers

OPERATION

FLYING-OFF DATE

AIRCRAFT CARRIERS

FERRIED

BEGAN TAKE-OFF

LANDED SAFELY

GUIDES

HURRY

02.08.40

ARGUS

12H

12H

11H (2)

2Sk (3)

WHITE

17.11.40

ARGUS

12H

12H

4H (4)

2Sk (5)

WINCH

03.04.41

ARK ROYAL

12H

12H

11H (6)

3Sk

DUNLOP

27.04.41

ARK ROYAL

24H

24H

23H (7)

3F

SPLICE

21.05.41

ARK ROYAL

24H

23H (8)

23H

4F (9)

   

FURIOUS

24H

18H (10)

17H (11)

4F (12)

ROCKET

06.06.41

ARK ROYAL

24H

24H

43H

9B

   

FURIOUS

20H

19H (13)

   

TRACER

14.06.41

ARK ROYAL

20H

19H (14)

43H (15)

4Hd

   

VICTORIOUS

28H

28H

   

RAILWAY I

27.06.41

ARK ROYAL

22H

22H

20H (16)

4B

RAILWAY II

30.06.41

ARK ROYAL 

26H

26H

35H (17)

6B

   

FURIOUS

16H

10H (18)

   

STATUS I

09.09.41

ARK ROYAL

26H

14H (19)

14H

4B (20)

STATUS II

13.09.41

ARK ROYAL

24H

24H

45H (21)

7B

   

FURIOUS

22H

22H

   

PERPETUAL I

12.11.41

ARK ROYAL

21H

21H

34H (22)

4B

   

ARGUS

16H

16H

   

PERPETUAL II

 (11. 41)

(ARK ROYAL)

-----------

-------(23)

   

SPOTTER

(28.02.42)

EAGLE

16S

-------(24)

   

SPOTTER

07.03.42

EAGLE

16S

15S (25)

15S

4B

PICKET

21.03.42

EAGLE

16S

9S (26)

9S

4B (27)

PICKET II

29.03.42

EAGLE

7S

7S (28)

7S

2B

CALENDAR

20.04.42

WASP

50S

47S (29)

46S (30)

 

BOWERY

09.05.42

WASP

50S

47S (31)

59S (32)

 
   

EAGLE

17S

17S

   

L B

18.05.42

EAGLE

17S

17S

17S

 
     

6A

6A

-------(33)

 

STYLE

03.06.42

EAGLE

32S

32S

26S (34)

 

SALIENT

09.06.42

EAGLE

32S

32S

31S (35)

 

PINPOINT

15.07.42

EAGLE

32S

32S

31S (36)

 

INSECT

21.07.42

EAGLE

30S

29S (37)

28S (38)

 

BELLOWS

11.08.42

FURIOUS

39S

38S (39)

37S (40)

 

BARITONE

17.08.42

FURIOUS

32S

31S (41)

27S (42)

 

TRAIN

29.10.42

FURIOUS

32S

29S (43)

29S

 

Total of aircraft which took-off :

346 Hurricanes  &  382 Spitfires

Total  of aircraft which landed in Malta:

323 Hurricanes  &  362 Spitfires

Aircraft Code:  A = Albacore, H = Hurricane, Hd = Hudson, B = Blenheim, S = Spitfire, Sk = Skua

1) GUIDES:  Skuas and Fulmars took-off from the aircraft-carriers with the fighters but the Blenheims and Hudsons came from Gibraltar.  All landed safely at Malta unless otherwise stated.

2) HURRY: One Hurricane crashed while landing.

3) HURRY: One Skua crashed while landing.

4) WHITE: 8 Hurricanes ran out of fuel en-route and fell in the sea.

5) WHITE: One Skua crashed in Sicily.

6) WINCH: One Hurricane crashed while landing.

7) DUNLOP: One Hurricane crashed en-route.

  1. SPLICE: Take-off of one Hurricane cancelled due to defects.

9) SPLICE: One Fulmar returned to Ark Royal and one crashed at sea.

10) SPLICE: Flight of 6 Hurricanes cancelled due to delays in the previous take-offs.

11) SPLICE: One Hurricane crashed en-route.

12) SPLICE: One Fulmar crashed en-route.

13) ROCKET: Flight of one Hurricane cancelled due to defects.

14) TRACER: Flight of one Hurricane cancelled due to defects.

15) TRACER: 2 Hurricanes crashed en-route and 2 crashed while landing.

16) RAILWAY I: One Hurricane crashed en-route and one crashed while landing.

17) RAILWAY II: One Hurricane crashed on take-off; this accident injured 6 other pilots who were watching (see 18).

One Hurricane might have crashed while landing, reducing the number that landed safely to 34.

18) RAILWAY II: Flight of 6 Hurricanes cancelled due to injury to the pilots (see 17).

19) STATUS I: Flight of 12 Hurricanes cancelled because only 2 of the navigation Blenheims turned-up.

20) STATUS I: Only 2 Blenheims came.

21) STATUS II: One Hurricane crashed on take-off from Furious.

22) PERPETUAL I: 3 Hurricanes crashed en-route.

23) PERPETUAL II: Cancelled, due to loss of Ark Royal.

24) SPOTTER (First): Operation aborted on the 27th due to faulty fuel pumps in overload tanks of the Spitfires.

25) SPOTTER: Flight of one Spitfire cancelled due to defects.

26) PICKET: Flight of 7 Spitfires cancelled because only 2 of the navigation Blenheims turned-up.

27) PICKET: Only 2 Blenheims came.

  1.  PICKET II: Spitfires whose flight was cancelled in Operation Picket.

29) CALENDAR: Flight of 3 Spitfires cancelled due to defects.

30) CALENDAR: One Spitfire defected to Algeria en-route.

31) BOWERY: Flight of 3 Spitfires cancelled due to defects.

32) BOWERY: One Spitfire crashed on take-off from Wasp, one landed back on Wasp,  2 crashed en-route and one crashed while landing.

33) L B: All 6 Albacores returned to Eagle due to overheating engine (wrong setting of air-cooler).

34) STYLE: One Spitfire crashed on take-off, 4 were shot down by Me109s near Pantelleria, and one crashed while landing.

35) SALIENT: One Spitfire crashed while landing.

36) PINPOINT: One Spitfire crashed on take-off.

37) INSECT: Flight of one Spitfire cancelled due to damage suffered in a collision with an AA gun mounting.

38) INSECT :One Spitfire crashed on take-off.

39) BELLOWS: Flight of one Spitfire cancelled due to defects.

40) BELLOWS: One Spitfire aborted its flight and landed back on the Indomitable.

41) BARITONE: Flight of one Spitfire cancelled because its pilot was injured when another Spitfire crashed on take-off (see 42).

42) BARITONE; One Spitfire crashed on take-off, 2 aborted their flight due to defects (undercarriage failed to retract) and abandoned the aircraft, and one crashed while landing.

43) TRAIN: Flight of 3 Spitfires cancelled due to defects.

Of the 43 fighters that commenced the take-off run but failed to land safely:-

Crashed during take-off: 7 (2 Hurricanes & 5 Spitfires)

Lost en-route: 24 (16 Hurricanes & 8 Spitfires)

Landed back on an aircraft-carrier: 2 (2 Spitfires)

Defected to Algeria: 1 (1 Spitfire)

Crashed while landing: 9 (5 Hurricanes & 4 Spitfires)

NOTE: A number of Swordfish and Albacore torpedo-bombers were also delivered to Malta from aircraft-carriers. These deliveries were normally carried-out in conjunction with convoy operations, except Operation Callboy which was carried-out on 18th October 1941, specifically to deliver 11 Albacores and 2 Swordfish aircraft.

APPENDIX D

The Memorials

The War Memorial

A War Memorialcommemorating the Maltese who lost their lives during the First World War, was unveiled on 11th November, 1938 - Armistice day - by the Governor of Malta, General Sir Charles Bonham-Carter.

The fifty-foot-high memorial, designed by Louis Naudi, takes the form of five superimposed crosses made of hard Gozo stone. The message sent by HM King George V recording Malta’s part in the Great War was reproduced on one side of the plinth, while the other three sides showed the names, in bronze letters, of the 592 Maltese who paid the supreme sacrifice.

Following WWII Government decided that the Memorial should commemorate the dead of the two Great Wars. The original panels at the base of the Memorial were replaced by tablets reproducing Malta’s armorial bearings and the text of the tributes paid to Malta by HM King George V, HM King George VI and President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

When unveiling the tablets on 8th December 1949 HRH Princess Elizabeth (now HM Queen Elizabeth II) said “...It is most fitting that those tributes should be recorded on your Cenotaph which commemorates those whose supreme sacrifice deserves all honour and glory. ...”  The Prime Minister of Malta, Dr (later Sir) Paul Boffa, replied: “...Recalling with pride the role Malta has played in the cause of Freedom, it is highly befitting that on this day we pay tribute to the Service and the civilian men and women of Malta who, fighting side by side with fellow-members of the British Commonwealth, have paid with their lives that we may live and continue to enjoy our heritage; we solemnly pledge ourselves never to forget their sacrifice. …”

The Commonwealth Air Forces Memorial

After the 1939-1945 War the Air Council Committee on War Memorials presented to the Air Council their recommendations for the commemoration of those members of the Air Forces of the British Commonwealth and Empire who, while serving in or in association with the Royal Air Force, lost their lives and have no known grave. These recommendations, approved by the Air Council in February 1948, were referred to the Imperial War Graves Commission to plan and build these memorials.

The Malta memorial, built on a site generously provided by the Government of Malta, commemorates those who lost their lives while flying from bases in Austria, Italy, Sicily, the Islands of the Adriatic and the Mediterranean, Malta Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, West Africa, Yugoslavia and Gibraltar, and have no known grave.

The Memorial takes the form of a column, fifteen metres high, of travertine marble from Tivoli in the Sabine Hills near Rome, incised with a light reticulated pattern and surmounted by a gilded bronze eagle two metres thirty five centimetres high. The column stands on a circular base around which the names of the 2301 airmen are commemorated on bronze panels and are made up as follows:

Royal Air Force…………………………………………1,542

Of Newfoundland…………………………………………….3

Royal Canadian Air Force……………………………….286

Royal Australian Air Force……………………………….211

Royal New Zealand Air Force…………………………….85

South African Air Force…………………………………..171

British Overseas Airways Corporation……………………..3

The central panel bears the following dedicatory inscription:

OVER THESE AND NEIGHBOURING LANDS AND SEAS THE AIRMEN

WHOSE NAMES ARE RECORDED HERE

FELL IN RAID OR SORTIE AND HAVE NO KNOWN GRAVE.

MALTA     GIBRALTAR     MEDITERRANEAN     ADRIATIC     TUNISIA     SICILY     ITALY     YUGOSLAVIA     AUSTRIA

PROPOSITI INSULA TENAX TENACES VIROS COMMEMORAT

The Latin epigram translates: An Island resolute of purpose remembers resolute men.

The Memorial was unveiled by HM Queen Elizabeth II on 3rd May 1954, in the presence of several distinguished personalities, about 500 relatives of the deceased airmen and thousands of Maltese. In a brief address Her Majesty said: "Many of you here today have, I know, come from far to Malta to join with my husband and myself in paying tribute to the fallen whose names are inscribed here. Most of you will inevitably be turning your minds back, recalling past memories and wondering, perhaps, whether their sacrifice has been in vain. To you I give this message of hope: if we show in all our dealings the same integrity of purpose and the same resolution in fulfilling it as was shown by them in the war, then surely we shall be able to extract from the dark and desperate difficulties which beset us a victory no less glorious than that which we commemorate here today ...".

The Malta Branch of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission looks after the maintenance of the Memorial.

The Siege Bell Memorial

The Siege Bell Memorial extends over a long site situated on the bastion adjacent to the Lower Barrakka Garden and overlooking the entrance to the Grand Harbour. The memorial consists of a neo-classical cupola with a bell in it and a recumbent figure on a catafalque lying before it as a tribute to some 7,000 servicemen, merchant seamen and civilians who made the ultimate sacrifice in defence of the Island.

The incipient idea for the memorial, designed by Professor Michael Sandle, was inspired by the George Cross Island Association, which was founded in 1987 by a survivor of the Malta convoys. They felt the time was more than ripe to erect a memorial worthy of the siege and relief of Malta, which had seen such an appalling loss of life. The memorial occupies an area of 2,400 square metres. It is 14.3 metres high, 10 metres wide and 19.1 metres long.

The bronze bell is over 2.13 metres high, 2.64 metres in diameter, weighs 12 tonnes and was cast by John Taylor Bellfounders, Loughborough. It is decorated with a relief of the Madonna within an aureole of flames.

The catafalque is over 6 metres long, 1.82 metres wide, weighs 4 tonnes and was cast by Morris Singer Foundry, Basingstoke. The bronze sculpture symbolically representing all the War Dead is of a draped figure on a ceremonial catafalque. This figure can be interpreted as a dead sailor, soldier, airman or civilian.

In a ceremony held on 20th May 1992, HE President Tabone said: "We have gathered today to dedicate this memorial to those who lost their lives in defence of Malta during the last war. It is a monument to valour, devotion to duty, a steadfastness of so many Maltese, British, Commonwealth and other sailors, soldiers and airmen". HM Queen Elizabeth II replied: "l am proud to share with you, Mr President, the honour of dedicating the Siege Bell Memorial on the George Cross Island".

The Government of Malta looks after the maintenance of the Memorial.

APPENDIX E

The War Graves 

Malta was the first place in the Empire to be attacked from the air and assaulted by sea, and during the long ordeal of the siege 432 members of the garrison were killed by enemy aircraft alone. There were numerous deaths among servicemen from other causes so that the Service war burials in Malta total 1512, of whom 181 are Maltese.

The majority of these burials were from the various hospitals which functioned there. In addition to the existing hospitals, No.90 British General Hospital was posted to the Island in April 1940 and was still there in December 1945. Nos.39 and 45 British General Hospitals arrived in September 1941 and January 1942 respectively, remaining until April and March 1944. Nos.161 Field Ambulance, 15 Field Ambulance and 57 Field Ambulance were stationed on the island also and 30 Coy. RAMC staffed the Command Laboratory.

Most of the casualties were buried in the naval and military cemeteries. These are Capuccini Naval Cemetery, Pembroke Military Cemetery, Mtarfa Military Cemetery and Pieta` Military Cemetery. At Pieta` are to be found war graves going back to the 1914-1918 War, when sick and wounded from Gallipoli and the Near East were brought to Malta. A few casualties from both wars are buried in civilian cemeteries in various parts of the island.

During both world wars burials were in collective or joint graves, although during the last war single graves were used to some extent when the air raids lessened as Malta is mainly rock and the earth shallow the graves were cut in rock. To mark the graves recumbent stone slabs - on which several inscriptions could be carved - were used instead of the traditional Commission headstone.  For the sake of uniformity the same type of memorial was used on the single graves.

Those men whose graves, although known, are so situated that permanent maintenance cannot be assured, are commemorated individually on memorial plaques let into the base of the Cross of Sacrifice in Pembroke Military Cemetery. Their names number 52, although 53 names are inscribed in the memorial plaques as one who lies buried in Zurrieq (St Leo’s) Cemetery is also commemorated there. Nineteen Maltese servicemen are buried in other cemeteries.

The Malta Branch of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission tends to the graves of British Commonwealth servicemen buried in the four military cemeteries.

The Cemeteries

(Capuccini) Naval Cemetery, Kalkara

This cemetery, which once belonged to the Admiralty, is located near Rinella, a bay across Valletta in the Grand Harbour and is close to a Capuchin monastery from which it takes its name. It is in two sections, Protestant and Roman Catholic. There is a triangular 1914-1918 War plot in the Protestant section in which stands a granite Cross of Sacrifice which was erected after that war. Most of the 1939-1945 War graves too are in the Protestant section, in a plot near the entrance and there is another group in the Roman Catholic section but there are a few others in scattered positions in this burial ground.

Capuccini Naval Cemetery, known locally as the Royal Naval Cemetery, Kalkara, contains the largest number of 1939-1945 burials in Malta; they total 734. The ten Merchant Navy non-war graves are those of men whose death was not due to war service. The 1914-1918 War casualties buried or commemorated in this cemetery number 346. This figure includes six casualties whose burial in the cemetery was not verified until after the publication of the 1914-1918 register, and one who was buried in the island of Pantellaria, but whose grave was lost. This man is commemorated by a special memorial type E, which is inscribed to this effect, with the quotation “Their glory shall not be blotted out.”

The cemetery is planted with trees and shrubs, which include pines, cypresses, oleanders and hibiscus. Low hedges line the main paths and around the 1939-1945 plots are low evergreen hedges of atriplex halimus (tree purslane) which has leaves of silvery green.

Pembroke Military Cemetery, St. Andrew’s

This burial ground, which was controlled by the War Office, is to be found close to the Pembroke Rifle Ranges and the former St Andrew’s Barracks. It lies adjacent to the main road from St Julians to St Pauls. It was begun in 1908 by the military authorities, to serve the garrison and besides the 1939-1945 War graves contains nine 1914-1918 War graves. There are in all 318 casualties of the 1939-1945 War buried in the cemetery. In addition 53 servicemen, whose graves in other parts of Malta are so situated that permanent maintenance cannot be assured, are commemorated by name on marble plaques let into the plinth of the Cross of Sacrifice. A central plaque bears the dedicatory inscription which reads:

1939 - 1945

THE SAILORS, SOLDIERS AND AIRMEN WHOSE NAMES ARE

HONOURED HERE DIED IN THE SERVICE OF THEIR COUNTRY

AND LIE BURIED ELSEWHERE IN MALTA.

This cemetery lies on sloping ground and is terraced. On the top terrace stands the Cross of Sacrifice approached by flanking steps.

Mtarfa Military Cemetery

Just below Mdina, the former capital of Malta, lies Mtarfa Military Cemetery. This burial ground contains graves of both World Wars, the 1914-1918 War burials numbering 15 while the 1939-1945 burials total 262. The latter include six Service personnel and six members of the Foreign Office attached to the Prime Minister’s delegation for the Yalta conference, who were killed in a flying accident on the way to the Crimea. The civilians are included in the figures for non-war graves.

The 1939-1945 War graves occupy a considerable area in which a Cross of Sacrifice has been erected. Pencil cypresses and a group of flowering shrubs form a background to the Cross. In front of it, bordering the main path, a low hedge of bougainvillea has been planted. Around the boundaries and in various positions in the cemetery are trees of several kinds, including pines, false pepper, casuarina, lantana and Indian lilac. Elsewhere are flowering shrubs to give colour and beauty, among them spiraea, plumbago, oleander and bougainvillea.

Pieta` Military Cemetery

This cemetery is one of two in Pieta` and should not be mistaken with Ta’ Braxia (non-catholic burials). Pieta` was the principal garrison cemetery and is laid out in rectangular paved terraces and planted with trees and shrubs.

Along the main paths pencil cypresses have been planted to form avenues, while in the plots, between the blocks of graves, are beds of oleanders and lantana. Oleanders form a background to the Cross of Sacrifice and along the north-eastern boundary and elsewhere in the cemetery are trees of various kinds, including pines, palms, casuarina, and ceratonia or carob-bean.

Here are buried or commemorated 1,304 casualties of the 1914-1918 War, in a section which contains the Cross of Sacrifice. The 1939-1945 War burials number 180 and this total is made up by 135 soldiers belonging to the United Kingdom Army, 31 men of the Malta Forces, 14 Yugoslavs, and 1 civilian.

APPENDIX F

Surviving Wartime Aircraft

Gloster Sea-Gladiator N5520 ‘Faith’

‘Faith’ is the sole survivor of the Gladiator biplanes that formed the Fighter Flight at Hal Far at the start of hostilities. This was one of the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm biplanes in storage at Kalafrana which had been left behind by HMS Glorious before sailing for the Norwegian campaign during early 1940. A number of these biplanes were loaned to the Royal Air Force by the Admiralty with which to improvise a temporary fighter aircraft unit, as the RAF did not have a single aircraft to resist the formidable Regia Aeronautica when Italy entered the War, as from midnight on 10th June 1940.

In later years these same Sea-Gladiators were to receive a tremendous amount of publicity. The story of ‘Faith’, ‘Hope’ and ‘Charity’ with their pilots flying them against overwhelming odds caught the imagination of many. Actually the Malta Gladiators’ single-handed defence of the Island lasted only a few days; nevertheless, despite their shortcomings they served a notable purpose. Regia Aeronautica pilots were led to believe that there were more of the biplanes than there actually were. Furthermore, the destruction of the first enemy aircraft of the war over Malta was credited to a Gladiator pilot.

N5519 ‘Charity’ was completely destroyed when it was shot down on 31st July 1940, whilst N5531 ‘Hope’ was wrecked in a bombing raid on Hal Far on 4th February 1941. It is recorded that ‘Faith’ was still flying Meteorological Flights in January 1942. Sometime later the fuselage skeleton was placed in a disused quarry at Kalafrana from where it was recovered and lightly repaired and decorated. On 3rd September 1943, in a ceremony which was held on the Palace Square, Valletta, Air Vice-Marshal Sir Keith Park, on behalf of the Royal Air Force, presented the aircraft to Chief Justice Sir George Borg, who received it on behalf of the People of Malta.

For the next twenty-two years ‘Faith’ was displayed in the Palace Armoury at Valletta being refurbished in 1961 by No.103 Maintenance Unit. Further restoration and refurbishment was carried out during 1973 at RAF Luqa. The legendary veteran made its last sortie, this time to the War Museum at Fort St Elmo, Valletta, in 1974.

Since the formation of the Malta Aviation Museum Foundation in 1994, further developments have taken place. A successful search for surviving wing parts from overseas sources has yielded parts from two sets of wings. The RAF Museum in Hendon has provided parts from their stores in Cardington, of Gladiators found in the 1970s at the bottom of Lake Lesjaskog, in Norway, whilst the Finnish Aviation Museum in Vantaa, Finland, has provided parts from another Gladiator wreck. The Malta Aviation Museum Foundation is confident that the reconstruction of a complete set of wings for N5520 is now possible.

Hawker Hurricane MkIIa Z3055

Just ten days after the breakout of hostilities in the Mediterranean Hurricanes staging through Luqa on transit to the Middle East were kept at Malta as reinforcements. Early in August 418 Flight, consisting of twelve Hurricanes, was ferried to Malta via aircraft-carrier HMS Argus and was amalgamated to Fighter Flight Malta to form No.261 Squadron, with Hurricanes as its main strength. This reinforcement of Hurricanes to Malta by aircraft-carriers was the first of thirteen operations which saw the safe arrival of 323 Hurricanes out of the 346 launched.

On 4th July 1941 Sgt Tom Hackston of No.126 Squadron (formerly No.46 Squadron) took-off from Safi in Hurricane IIa Z3055 at 03.45am for a dawn patrol; he failed to return. His aircraft was recovered on 19th September 1995 from the seabed off the Blue Grotto, close to Wied iz-Zurrieq. The aircraft lay at a depth of 43 metres and fishing nets often got caught on the wreckage. Following its recovery and identification the cleaning process began in earnest and the reason for its ditching soon became clear as the Merlin engine showed signs of overheating on one of its cylinder banks. This must have resulted in an engine seizure thus not permitting Hackston to return to base.

The reconstruction of the aircraft is currently underway, initially being sponsored by Mr Frank Salt of Frank Salt Real Estate Ltd, in memory of his father, Flt Lt J H Salt and the groundcrews that he served with during the Second World War in Malta. From overseas, Hawker Restorations Ltd, have provided exchange and missing parts, whilst the reconstruction is in the capable hands of David Polidano, with the help of some MAMF members. The aircraft will be restored to its wartime configuration and taxiing condition. The Hackston family has been contacted and relatives of his have since visited the project to see for themselves the re-birth of Tom’s former mount.

Hurricane IIa Z3055 was constructed as part of the fifth production batch of 1,000 aircraft built by Hawker Aircraft at Kingston or Weybridge between 14/01/41 and 28/07/41, in a batch of 49 aircraft with serials Z3050 to Z3099 and fitted with a Merlin XX engine. Details from Form AM 78 reveal that the aircraft was delivered from the factory to 48MU at Hawarden on 27/02/41 and prepared for squadron service. It was transferred to Abbotsinch on 17/03/41 but only stayed until it was transferred to 5MU at Kemble on 26/03/41, and was delivered back to Abbotsinch on 18/05/41 for shipment to Malta. It was taken on charge at Malta in July 1941.

Vickers Armstrong Spitfire MkIX EN199

First flown at Eastleigh on 28th November 1942, En199 reached the North African front at the end of January 1943. Wing Commander Ronald Berry DFC chose EN199 as his personal mount and had his initials RB applied to the fuselage. Berry claimed enemy aircraft destroyed whilst flying this aircraft which was later flown by Squadron Leader Colin F Gray. From North Africa En199 moved to Ta’ Qali, Malta, where with No.154 Squadron it took part in the invasion of Sicily when further enemy aircraft were claimed destroyed. EN199 moved to the Italian mainland taking part in operations with No.1435 Squadron in 1944 and later with No.225 Squadron in 1945. Later that year in October EN199 was back on Malta at Hal Far taking part in Meteorological Flights and the following January it moved over to Luqa joining No.73 Squadron. On 23rd December 1946 it was blown into a quarry during a gale and was struck off charge on 30th January 1947.

Following repairs EN199 was presented to the Air Scouts, within the Boy Scout Movement and placed at their Island Headquarters in Floriana. Sadly, within a short while the Spitfire fell into a very sorry state and was considered to be dangerous to the young scouts. The aircraft was then passed onto the Civil Defence Corps at the ‘Gharghur Enclosure’. Here it was used in the several rescue training courses that were held during 1955. A further move to the new Rescue and Training Wing at Targa Battery, Mosta, took place in April 1956. The aircraft was left purposely in a dismantled state to simulate as realistically as possible an air crash in open countryside. When its services were no longer required the Spitfire lay dismembered for several years exposed to the elements and vandals which took their toll leaving very little remains.

The National War Museum Association collected the parts in 1974, however little progress was made and these were sent to a scrap yard. By a stroke of luck EN199’s remains survived under tons of scrap and in 1992 Ray Polidano extricated them and started its reconstruction in earnest. Sponsorship for the project was forthcoming from Mid-Med Bank plc (main sponsor), the Museums Dept and the National War Museum Association. A number of aviation-minded friends, some from overseas, helped all along the reconstruction process until the aircraft was completed to static condition in time for the celebrations of the fiftieth anniversary of VE-Day, when it was displayed to the public on the Palace Square in Valletta on 5th May 1995. It now has pride of place in the Aviation Museum at Ta’ Qali.

Fairey Swordfish MkII HS491

Although obsolete by wartime standards, the Swordfish, affectionately known as ‘Stringbag’ among RN Fleet Air Arm pilots, played a notable role during the Second World War as a torpedo bomber. It distinguished itself initially in April 1940 during the Norwegian campaign, later on in November by sinking and damaging units of the Italian Battle Fleet in Taranto harbour and later still by crippling the German battleship Bismarck. Swordfish were also in action in convoy protection both in the Mediterranean and Atlantic zones.

Swordfish biplanes operated from Hal-Far, Malta, in attacks against North African, Sicilian and Italian ports and installations, in addition to strikes against shipping carrying supplies to Rommel’s Afrika Korps. It was a Swordfish pilot who made an emergency landing on the Italian island of Lampedusa, and in return, almost comically, received the surrender of the same island.

As no example of a wartime Swordfish aircraft survived on Malta, one had to be sourced from overseas. This was made possible during 2004 when Canadian Bob Spence offered a substantial kit-of-parts for sale to our museum. Funding was provided generously by friends of our museum. Although missing several items, including the engine, it is believed that at the end of a long term restoration a most satisfactory result will be obtained.

de Havilland Tiger Moth DH82 DE730

A basic trainer with the RAF since 1932, the Tiger Moth was still in use more than fifteen years later and is one of the well-loved aeroplanes ever built. Many examples were built in the United Kingdom and many more in Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Most Royal Air Force pilots trained in Tiger Moths including some Americans.

Our Tiger Moth, with civil registration G-ANFW, was purchased from the United Kingdom.

Bibliography

BAILEY, Captain E A S, CBE DSC RN, Malta Defiant and Triumphant, Rolls of Honour 1940-1943, EAS Bailey, Somerset, 1992. ISBN 0-9507481-1-0

COMMONWEALTH WAR GRAVES COMMISSION, Memorial Register 1-11, 1939-1945 The War Dead of the Commonwealth - Cemeteries in Malta GC, London, The Imperial War Graves Commission, 1988

COMMONWEALTH WAR GRAVES COMMISSION, Memorial Register 8, 1939-1945 The Malta Memorial Parts I & II, London, The Imperial War Graves Commission, 1988

CULL, Brian, with MALIZIA, Nicola, and GALEA Frederick, Spitfires Over Sicily, January – August 1943, London, Grub Street, 2000. ISBN 1-902304-32-2

CULL, Brian, and GALEA, Frederick, Hurricanes Over Malta, June 1940 – April 1942, London, Grub Street, 2001. ISBN 1-902304-91-8

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GUNBY, Dr David, Sweeping the Skies, a History of No.40 Squadron RFC & RAF 1916-56, Durham, UK, Pentland Press, 1995. ISBN 1-85821-190-5

HALLEY, James J, The Squadrons of the Royal Air Force & Commonwealth 1918-1998, Air Britain (Historians) Ltd, Kent, 1988. ISBN 0-85130-164-9

HAMLIN, John F, Military Aviation in Malta GC 1915-1993, GMS Enterprises, Peterborough, 1994. ISBN 1-870384-25-3

NESBIT, Roy C, Beauforts & Beaufighters over the Mediterranean, Airliife England, Shrewsbury,1995. ISBN 1-85310-5171

SCOTT, Stuart R, Battleaxe Blenheims, No.105 Squadron RAF at War 1940-1, Alan Sutton Publishing Ltd, 1996. ISBN 0-7509-1126-3 

SHORES, Christopher; RING, Hans; and HESS, William N. Fighters Over Tunisia, London, Neville Spearman, 1975. ISBN 85435-210-4

SHORES, Christopher; CULL, Brian; and MALIZIA, Nicola Malta: The Hurricane Years - 1940-41, London, Grub Street, 1987. ISBN 0-948817-06-2

SHORES, Christopher; CULL, Brian; and MALIZIA, Nicola Malta: The Spitfire Year 1942, London, Grub Street, 1991. ISBN 0-948817-16-X

VELLA, Philip, Malta: Blitzed But Not Beaten, Valletta, Progress Press Co Ltd. ISBN 0-907930-33-6

 

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